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The national Library





The design of the building of the National Library is unique. It is a diamond-shaped structure symbolizing the significance of learning. The core of the building is the elevator going through all the floors. Right at the entrance , the sculpture of the Belarussian printer Francysk Skorina is placed. The western wall is decorated by an alley commemorating great cultural figures of the past. A park is made around the library building

 

 

15. Great Britain: state system and sights.

What places of interest attract tourists in London? (Olympiad. Form 8-9)

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural Centre. It is also one of the oldest cities in the world and naturally it has a lot of interesting places to visit.

The Museum of Londonis very popular among the tourists. It has a fascinating collection of all kinds of objects that take the visitor through the history of this famous capital city from prehistoric times to the present day. A very popular section of the museum is the section devoted to the Great Fire of London . It includes a collection of models of the different parts of the city and by pressing buttons you can follow the progress of the fire and see the destruction it caused.

When you are in London you should definitely visit the Tower of London which used to be a prison , the Royal residence and a treasure house. Now its a museum where you can see the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation and a fine collection of armor. The security of the Tower is ensured by Beefeaters or the Yeoman Warders who still wear their picturesque Tudor uniform. A lot of ancient traditions and customs are carefully kept in the Tower. Trafalgar Square is the natural center of London. It is usually full of visitors feeding the pigeons. In the middle of the square we can see Nelsons Column with the statue of Nelson at the top. This monument was erected to commemorate Nelsons victory at the battle of Trafalgar. The Palace of Westminster(the Houses of Parliament ) is also worth visiting. The clock tower of the palace is known throughout the world as Big Ben..Westminster Abbeyis a large church where the coronations of many kings and queens took place. If I were in London I would also go to Madame Tussauds museum and see the wax figures of the most famous people in the world. And surely I wouldnt miss the famous London Eye. It is the biggest wheel in the world . It was built for the Millenium celebration.



Great Britain.

1. Lets talk about Great Britain. What do you know about this country?

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of four formerly independent countries. They are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, the capital of Wales is Cardiff, the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast and the capital of England is London. The UK is situated on the British Islands, the largest of them are Great Britain and Ireland. The country is surrounded by seas and is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The country occupies the area of over 242,000 sq miles. It is a densely populated country. The population is over 57 million people. About 80 per cent of the population lives in towns.

The scenery and the landscape of the UK are very diverse. There you can find flat valleys and highlands, forest and lake areas. The highest mountain peaks are Ben Nevis in Scotland and Showdown in Wales. The rivers in Great Britain are not long. The Thames is the most important waterway in the country, though the longest river is the Severn.

As for the climate of Great Britain it is moderate and mild due to the influence of the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. The summers are usually cooler than on the continent. There is a lot of rain in autumn and winter. The weather in Britain is very changeable.

The UK is a highly developed industrial state. It produces and exports iron and steel products, machinery and electronics. The biggest industrial centers are London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester.

The chief agricultural crops are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and fodder grasses.

The UK is a parliamentary monarchy and the Queen is the head of the state. The present Sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II.. But in practice the Queen reigns but doesnt rule, the country is ruled by the government

2. What do you know about the history of this country?

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country of great history rich in important events and entertaining legends connected with them. The first inhabitants of the island came from the Iberian peninsula after 3000 BC. After 2000 BC the people from the east of Europe entered the country. They left us Stone hedge as an impressive monument of their time.

After 800 BC the Celts arrived from Central Europe and opened up a new important page of the British history. The name Britain comes from the name of a Celtic tribe known as the Britons.



In 55BC Julius Caesar, the Roman ruler, invaded Britain but his first expedition was not successful, In 54 BC he came with a larger army and the Celts were defeated. But Caesar didnt stay in Britain . He left the country with slaves and riches and made the Celts pay a regular tribute to Rome.

In 43 AD the country was conquered by the Romans again and the occupation continued to the beginning of the 5th century. The Romans built many towns and roads. The largest of the towns was called Londinium. Roman culture and civilization had a positive influence on the development of the country. When the Romans left , Britain remained independent for some time. After that it was invaded by the Germanic tribes and the Danes. The last of the invaders who came to Britain were the Normans from France. William the Conqueror became the king of England he built the White Tower- one of the most important and beautiful buildings of the Tower of London.

As a result now the UK is a multinational society , which benefits from the influence of different people and cultures.

 

3. What can the British be proud of?

I think that the British can be proud of their traditions. Its common knowledge that the British are lovers of traditions. A whole year , each season in Britain is connected with various colorful traditions, customs and festivals .Some of them are closely connected with the Crown. The Trooping of the Color is the ceremony connected with the Queens birthday. The Queen is the only person in the country with two birthdays. The official birthday is on the second Saturday in June. Its a big parade with brass bands and soldiers. At the front of the parade is the flag or the Color. The guards are trooping the Color. Another colorful tradition is the State Opening of Parliament. On this day the Queen travels from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a cold carriage. Then she sits on a throne in the House of Lords where she reads a speech. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown and crown jewels. Some other well-known traditions are Swan Upping, Guy Fawkes Day, St Davids Day, carol singing

4. Would you like to visit Britain? Why?

Great Britain is a country of strong attraction for tourists. The charm of it lies in its variety of scenery. The country is famous for its parks and gardens. The art of gardening is a very old tradition in England.

Great Britain is the country with a long exciting history and a rich cultural heritage. I would like to see Stonehenge, a relic of an ancient civilization, the Loch Ness and the legendary monster, the Royal Residence and numerous castles. I would like to visit Strafford-upon-Avon and see the places associated with the great writer William Shakespeare: the Grammar School where he studied, the church where he was buried, the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. The town is famous for its great Shakespeare festivals which are held annually from April to September. I would like to

I have learnt much about Britain, its sights and traditions. And of course I would like to visit the country and to see it with my own eyes.

5. What are the state symbols of the country?

The state symbols of the country are the British National Anthem (God Save the Queen) and the Union flag. The national flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. Its is made up of three crosses: the red cross of St George of England, the white cross of St Andrew of Scotland and the red cross of St Patrick of Ireland, all on the blue background. The national symbol of England is a red rose, the national symbol of Wales is a daffodil, the symbol of Scotland is a thistle, the symbol of Northern Ireland is a shamrock. Some other symbols are Double Deck Buses, the Royal Family , the London Eye

6. What part of Great Britain would you like to visit? Why?

I would like to visit England because its the largest part of the UK. London, the capital of the UK and such historical cities as Windsor, Dover and Brighton are situated here. I would like to visit Stratford-upon-Avon the lake District, to see the ruins of Hadrians Wall (a stone wall built across the North of England by the order of the Roman ruler Hadrian to defend the North border of Roman Britain from Scottish tribes)

7. What would you ask a British teenager about national holidays in Britain?

1. What are the most popular national holidays in your country? 2. Have you ever gone carol singing? 3. Are you always given presents on Christmas Day? 4. How does your family celebrate New Years Day? 5. What do you usually do on Guy Fawkes Day? 6. How do the English people celebrate the Queens official birthday?

8. What would you ask a British teenager about Britain?

1. What part of the UK would you recommend me to visit? 2. What British traditions are the most colorful ones? 3. Do you know any legends about the Tower of London? 4. How can you travel around London? 5. Is the Lake District worth visiting? 6. Why is the Giants Causeway called the Eighth Natural Wonder of the World? (is known for a fascinating array of basalt columns which are amazingly symmetrical) 7. Do you believe in Loch Ness Monster?

9. What would you ask a person who works at Buckingham palace about the Royal family?

1. Is it easy to be a queen? 2. What time does the Queen begin her day? 3. What does she start her day with? 4. Does the queen have much spare time? 5. What does she do during the day? 6. Doe the Queen get many presents? 7. What does she do with her presents? 8. What other members of the Queens family live in the palace?

10. Give me a piece of advice on what sights to see in London?

When you are in London you should definitely visit the Tower of London which used to be a prison , the Royal residence and a treasure house. Now its a museum where you can see the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation and a fine collection of armor. The security of the Tower is ensured by Beefeaters or the Yeoman Warders who still wear their picturesque Tudor uniform. A lot of ancient traditions and customs are carefully kept in the Tower. Trafalgar Square is the natural center of London. It is usually full of visitors feeding the pigeons. In the middle of the square we can see Nelsons Column with the statue of Nelson at the top. This monument was erected to commemorate Nelsons victory at the battle of Trafalgar. The Palace of Westminster(the Houses of Parliament ) is also worth visiting. The clock tower of the palace is known throughout the world as Big Ben..Westminster Abbeyis a large church where the coronations of many kings and queens took place. If I were in London I would also go to Madame Tussauds museum and see the wax figures of the most famous people in the world. And surely I wouldnt miss the famous London Eye. It is the biggest wheel in the world . It was built for the Millenium celebration.

11. What British festivals would you advise your friend to visit?

I would advise to visit the festival which is called Up-Helly-Aa. The Shetlands are islands near Scotland. In the ninth century the Vikings from Norway came to the Shetlands. They came to Britain in ships and took away gold, animals and people. Now 1000 years later, people in the Shetlands remember the Vikings with the festival, which they called Up-Helly-AA. Every winter they make a model of of a Viking long ship with the head of a dragon at the front. Then they dress in Viking clothes and carry the ship through the town to the sea and burn it there.

12. Do the British differ greatly from Belarussian people in character? Why?

I dont think that national stereotypes give a true picture of national character. We all know that there are black and white sheep in every herd. But of course I have some idea of the British. I think they are remarkably polite and never tired of saying Thank you, Im sorry. They dont like displaying their emotions even in dangerous and tragic situations. They dont like boasting and showing off in manners , dress or speech. They never rush excitedly for seats in buses or trains. They love flowers, animals, sports.

As for Belarussian people they are extremely hardworking and tolerant, they are more emotional than the British. And the most characteristic feature of our people is their hospitality. They are always ready to meet guests and to give them a warm welcome.

Who governs Britain?

1. Lets talk about the political system of the United Kingdom. Who has the greatest power in the UK? What does the term parliamentary monarchy mean?

The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy and the King or the Queen is the head of the state. But in practice the country is ruled by the government which is formed by the Parliament. The British Parliament is elected every five years by direct vote. The party which wins the elections to the Parliament forms the Government and appoints the Prime Minister. The British Parliament consists of two Chambers or Houses the House of Lords and the House of Commons. British people elect MPs (Members of Parliament only to the House of Commons , which consists of 646 members while the membership of the House of Lords is inherited from generation to generation by British aristocracy. So members of the House of Lords are not elected. Officially the Queen summons a Parliament, and she also dissolves it. Nothing that the Parliament has decided can become law until the Queen agrees to it. In practice the reality is different. The Queen cannot choose anyone she likes to be Prime Minister. The Prime Minister must have the support of the majority of MPS in the House of Commons. A British Prime Minister has a great deal more power than the Monarch does. He forms the Cabinet of Ministers which consists of the most powerful politicians. There are usually about 20 people in the Cabinet. The Conservative Party is the ruling party nowadays. The Prime Minister of Great Britain is David Cameroon.

The Parliament of Great Britain makes new laws, decides how to spend state money, keeps a close eye on government activities. The British Parliament works in a large building called the Palace of Westminster (known as the Houses of Parliament). Number 10, Downing Street is the official residence of the British Prime Minister. In Britain except the central government there is a system of local governments. Members of local councils are elected by the people in a certain area.

 

 








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