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Attitudes to training vary. All progressive firms agree that much more

business training is needed. Then main arguments are about what kind

of training is needed, what methods should be used and who should do

the training.

If training is to be effective, a firm must have clear objectives. It may

want to introduce a new equipment, improve efficiency and perfor-

mance, train unskilled workers, to avoid a labour shortage, reduce the

supervision needed, provide greater chances for international promo-


Trainees also need clear objectives. These might be:

· to increase their pay

· to obtain promotion

· to reduce the chance of accidents.

Unless trainees see some personal benefit in the training, they will

not be highly motivated and the course will fail.

Once the objectives are clear, a suitable program can be planned. The

three main purposes of training are to instil knowledge, change attitudes,

increase skills. The importance given to these purposes will help decide

what training methods are used.

A lecture is often used for the induction of new employees. However,

if the quality of the lecture is poor, the audience’s attention will soon


· Visits to other parts of the firm may be part of the induction process,

to increase knowledge of other stages in the production process and to

establish good relations between departments.

· Case studies present trainees with a business problem which they

have to solve as a group. Attitudes and emotions may be involved here.

· In role-play, where trainees act out a real-life business situation to

gain confidence and experience, emotional involvement is often fairly

high. In group therapy, trainees come together to explore their attitudes

to one another by speaking their minds freely. Emotional involvement is

very high.

· Personal skill instruction – the traditional method of watching an

older, experienced worker – is still widely used for training unskilled or

semiskilled workers.

Training may be done internally, within a firm itself, or externally at

college or school. Internal training provides constant work experience





and can be more easily controlled by the firm itself. External training

may be more professional and give a broader view.

Training is provided for all people of 16 or 17 who are not in full-time

education or a job. Youth training (YT) leads to National Vocational

Qualifications (NVQ) Level 2 and Modern Apprenticeships to NVQ

Level 3. Training is mainly in local firms, though specialist trainers and

colleges are also used.

1. Give four reasons why a firm might set up a training programme.

2. Why is it important for trainees to be motivated?

3. Choose four methods of training. Describe when and for whom

they might be used and their advantages and disadvantages.

4. Explain, with examples, why it is sometimes important to change

the attitudes of employees. What training methods can be used?


Text 6

Read the text and identify the problem discussed in the text.

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