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Exercise 4. Record the following verbs in groups in accordance with their aspective character: terminative verbs, non-terminative verbs and verbs of double aspective character

to enjoy to jump to mean to pass

to finish to jump up to read to sit down

to enter to laugh to show to set

to go to look to exist to lie

to carry to look for to sleep to lay

to bring to find to work to have dinner

to throw to fall to work out to give a push

Exercise 5. Give all possible interpretations of the voice phenomena illustrated in following sentences:

1. The poor fellow gets punished almost every day. 2. She raised herself suddenly in the tall chair. 3. Arnie opened the rumble seat and helped Savina to get in. The door opened and a man and a woman entered. 4. Erik and Savina walked in silence for a while. He walked Andrew eight miles that first day. 5. The apparatus ran itself and observed itself. 6. "Doеs anyone know we are here?" Davy was asking him when he was getting himself into the water again. 7. It is so dynamically produced and acted that I found myself enjoying it. 8. Labour MPs got disturbed at the arrogant attitude of Downing Street. 9. One feels half disembodied sitting like a shadow at the door. 10. The knitting becomes frenzied at times. 11. Let us drink champagne when we meet again. 12. I must end the letter. 13. The day ended, tranquil and bluish.

Exercise 6. Analyse the following sentences for different kind of modality expressed in each case (indicative modality, oblique modality, certainty, uncertainty, supposition, unreal condition, unreal consequence, etc). Comment whether the verbs "would" or "should" are used as modal verbs (in their original meaning) or as pure auxiliaries:

1. There was dust everywhere, the room could not have been cleaned for weeks. (J. Galsworthy) 2. His father might be dead. He looked and saw the quick breaths that came not very often. (J. Aldridge) 3. DearBlanche! Ithought I should never have said it I believe I should have stood shuttering here all day if you hadn't helped me cut with it. (B. Shaw) 4. "It's not like Jolyon to be late!" he said to Irene, with uncontrollable vexation. "I suppose it will be June keeping him". (J. Galsworthy) 5. He examined her meticulously... His examination was an illumination to Andrew, quiet, silent, absolutely precise. When it was over, he said nothing to Mary but took Andrew beyond the door. "Pneumothorax," he said, "There's no question. That lung should have been collapsed weeks ago.". (Cronin) 6. "She shall go off tomorrow, the little artful creature", said Mrs. Sadly, with great energy. (W. Thackery) 7. She was resentful of her father's attitude. He might have seen what the point was. (Dreiser) 8. It must be she who silenced his protest. "It could not be otherwise". (J. London) 9. His manner might have been called severe, though really it was more cultivated than austere. (Dreiser) 10. To think that Cowper wood should have taken her to such a place. (Dreiser) 11. If he should have a numerous family, for instance, it would be a very convenient addition. "To be sure it would". (J. Austen) 12. "It was my father's last request to me,' replied her husband, "that I should assist his widow and daughters". (J. Austen) 13. It was in his power to make her happy. Denied of happiness himself, why should he deny happiness to her. He could marry her and take her down with him to dwell in the grass-walled castle in the Marquises. (J. London) 14. Would you kindly pass me the salt cellar? 15. If it be possible for a heavy and healthy man to look haggard, he looked haggard. (Chesterton).



Adverb is a notional part of speech denoting non-substantive properties: in most cases the properties of actions (to walk quickly), or the properties of other properties (very quick), or the properties of the situations in which the processes occur (to walk again). The adverb can be defined as a qualifying word of the secondary qualifying order, while the adjective is a primary qualifying word.

The adverb is the least numerous and the least independent of all the notional parts of speech; it has a great number of semantically weakened words intermediary between notional and functional words; this is why its notional part of speech status was doubted for a long time: the first grammarians listed adverbs among the particles.

Adverbs are characterized by their combinability with verbs, adjectives and other adverbs, which they modify. They perform the functions of various adverbial modifiers: of time (yesterday), place (there), of manner (secretly), etc. The adverbs which refer to whole situations are defined as situation-“determinants”, e.g.: They quarreled again.

There are certain contexts in which adverbs combine with nouns and perform a peculiar function of mixed adverbial-attributive character, e.g.: the trip abroad, his return home, the then President of the US, etc. This is the result of the nominalization of syntactic constructions.

In accordance with their form, adverbs are divided into simple and derived. There are few simple adverbs, most of them are of a functional or semi-functional character, e.g.: more, very, there, then, here, etc. The characteristic adverbial word-building affixes are the following: simply, clockwise, backward, ahead, etc. The most productive derivational model of adverbs is the one with the suffix ‘-ly’. It is so highly productive that practically every adjective has its adverbial counterpart, e.g.: simple - simply, soft – softly, etc.; some linguists, for example, A. I. Smirnitsky, consider them to be not adverbs but specific forms of adjectives.

The other structural types are compound adverbs, e.g.: sometimes, downstairs, etc., and stable adverbial phrases or composite phrasal adverbs, e.g.: upside down, at least, a great deal of, from time to time, etc.

Traditionally, adverbs are divided on the basis of their general semantics into qualitative, quantitative, and circumstantial. The qualitative adverbs denote the inherent qualities of actions and other qualities; most of them are derived from qualitative adjectives, e.g.: bitterly, hard, beautifully, well, etc. The quantitative adverbs show quantity measure; genuine quantitative adverbs are usually derived from numerals, e.g.: twice, three times, tenfold, manifold, etc. The circumstantial adverbs denote mainly the circumstances of time and place (they can also be defined as “orientative”), e.g.: today, here, when, far, ashore, abroad, often, etc.

The whole class of adverbs can be divided, first, into nominal and pronominal, then the nominal adverbs can be subdivided into qualitative and orientative, the former including genuine qualitative adverbs and degree adverbs, the latter divided into temporal and local adverbs, with further possible subdivisions of each group.

Adverbs are also subdivided functionally into evaluative and specificative. When used in their evaluative function, adverbs (qualitative adverbs, predominantly) distinguish the category of comparison and have five morphological forms: one positive, two comparative (direct and reverse) and two superlative (direct and reverse), e.g .: bitterly – more bitterly, less bitterly – most bitterly, least bitterly. Their superlative degree form can also be used either in the absolute sense (to denote absolute superiority) or in the elative sense, denoting a high degree of the property, e.g.: The youngest kid cried most bitterly of all. – The kid cried most bitterly. When used in the specificative function, adverbs are unchangeable, e.g.: We meet today; We came ashore.

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