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Как сделать объемную звезду своими руками
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Как противостоять манипуляциям мужчин?
Как сделать так чтобы женщины сами знакомились с вами
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Вопрос 4. Как сделать так, чтобы вас уважали и ценили?
Как сделать лучше себе и другим людям
Как сделать свидание интересным?
Rational use of natural resources
The problem of rational use of natural resources is closely connected with environmental protection.
Today the interaction between society and nature resulting from intense industrial growth throughout the world on the basis of existing technologies that produce a diversity of by-products has attained dimensions that are so extreme that they threaten to mankind’s very existence, both through the depletion of natural resources and through the pollution of man’s environment that is dangerous to his life.
It is estimated that the aggregate volume of goods and services in developed countries now doubles every 15 years, and there is a tendency for that period to decrease. But the volume of waste from economic activities continues to double, too. It contaminates the atmosphere, water bodies, and the soil. For each inhabitant of industrially developed countries approximately 30 tons of matter are extracted each year, of which only 1- 1.5 per cent is embodied in products that are consumed, while the rest is a huge amount of industrial. Every year over 250,000 new chemical compounds are synthesized in the world, of which about 300 are utilized in production and may enter the environment.
Modern industrial production creates basically new materials and wastes hitherto non-existent in nature and in many respects foreign to living organisms by their physical and chemical structure. The influence exerted by new chemical substances, new types of energy, and various physical radiations on man has given rise to formally unknown diseases, namely, genetic, toxicological. Allergic, respiratory, endocrine and others. The problem of a healthy environment has now become as vital as that of providing man with foodstuffs or energy.
In our country the rational use, conservation and reproduction of natural resources, a thrifty attitude towards nature is an integral part of the building of the future Ukrainian society.
An enormous work will have been done in Ukraine over the next few years on the rational use and reproduction of natural resources, and the prevention and liquidation of adverse consequences of society’s influence on the environment. The state allocates huge sums for environmental protection.
By the using the latest scientific and technological means the governmental plan of Ukraine provides for further measures to control the environment and sources of its pollution. They envisage the introduction of new effective ways of developing mineral deposits, the elimination of harmful discharges into the atmosphere, combating production, transport and other noises, vibrations and the effect of electric and magnetic fields and radiation. The plan also provides for the comprehensive and rational utilization and protection of land, water and forest resources, for upgrading forecasting and minimizing the impact of industrial production on the environment, taking into account possible consequences when preparing and adopting various projects.
A large environmental improvement project is under way in the Ukraine. Ina view of the water shortage in a number of regions and the impending growth of water consumption it is planned to oblige all branches of the national economy, particularly agriculture ( in irrigation of land ) to use water thriftily, and to increase the water resources of southern regions by territorially redistributing the drain.
To preserve the purity of water bodies’ provision is made for protection measures, further large-scale construction of purifying installations in cities and rural areas, and in industry. Measures are carried out to prevent mineral fertilizers and toxic chemicals from arable lands. Industry is facing the enormous task of introducing non-waste technology.
It is planned to preserve the Sea of Azov. Tens of millions grivnas are allocated annually for the conservation and restoration of fish resources.
Better technical maintenance of motor vehicles, the application of neutralizers, upgrading of engine design, use of new types of fuel and low-toxic additives there to, the manufacture of gas-cylinder cars as well as the elaboration of optimal traffic control systems - all this will help minimize air pollution in cities caused by motor transport.
Far-reaching environmental protection measures are being implemented in agriculture. Organizational and economic measures were sufficient to raise the anti-erosion effect. Agrotechnical measures will help to additionally retain surface drain and decrease soil washout..
Biological means of combating diseases and pest control are being worked out and brought to the commercial level along with an increase in the manufacture of mineral fertilizers and chemical agents to protect plants.
Monitoring the discharge of toxic and harmful substances into the environment is also being intensified. We hope that in most cases the environmental quality standards in the Ukraine will be more stringent than those in other countries.
Give rise to - викликати, приводити до
Be under way – проводитися, здійснюватися
Ex.10 Find in the text the synonyms to the following words and word-combinations:
total, provide for, harmful, use n, lack n, flight, remove ( liquid, gas, etc. ), control industrial, elimination, enormous, forestation, allowable, every day, economical, impact, be equel to, improve the quality.
Ex.11 Using the material from the text translate the following word-combinations:
до сих пір ( раніше ) не існуючих у природі; загальний ( сукупний ) об’єм товарів та послуг; впроваджувати безвідходну технологію; шкода, викликана тільки забрудненням повітря; складаючи площу; турботливе ставлення до природи; економно використовувати воду; шляхом використання новітніх засобів ( використовуючи новітні засоби ).
Date: 2015-09-02; view: 275; Нарушение авторских прав