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Speak about the most important environmental issues in Moscow





· Air pollution

· Overpopulation

· Noise pollution

Cars account for 90% of air pollution in Moscow while only 10% is down to industry. The situation can be remedied if drivers start using high-quality fuel and the city government starts banning vehicles that fail to meet certain environmental standards from entering the city. Moreover, the use of hybrid cars will also make a significant contribution to air quality. Today such cars are mainly manufactured in Japan and the United States and I would be glad to see Russian car makers start producing hybrid cars, too.
Another measure would be to create jobs in the Moscow Region so that fewer people have to work in Moscow itself, introduce staggered shift patterns and upgrade the internal combustion engines used in municipal transport, including buses. There is technology for diesel engines that help cut emissions dramatically.


Overpopulation causes many problems. Moscow produces about 22 million tons of waste per year, including bulk waste, residential solid waste, industrial and construction site waste and that from water treatment facilities. Waste incinerators burn about 773,500 tons of this waste, mainly municipal solid waste.
Seventy percent of Muscovites live in unacceptable noise conditions which points to the detrimental effects of traffic and construction noise on the city's health.

The city's environment watchdog is warning that noise pollution has reached unprecedented levels and is recommending better sound insulation for buildings, and stiffer fines for persistent noise polluters.

Discuss

What measures should be undertaken by the local and federal governments to improve the ecological situation in Russia?

D: Don't you mind if I start?

J: Go ahead!

D: Industrialization has brought us into conflict with the natural environment. Our environment is in danger; air, water and land pollution have disastrous consequences which threaten human life. Our authorities should take some steps to prevent disastrous effects. In my book, to reduce air and noise pollution, for example, in Moscow, it would be great to make our city more pedestrian oriented. What I mean is to ban traffic in the city centre. What do you feel about it?



J: I absolutely agree! Moreover, solution of this problem can be to create jobs in the Moscow Region so that fewer people have to work in Moscow itself, and upgrading the internal combustion engines used in municipal transport, including buses. There is technology for diesel engines that help cut emissions dramatically.What your opinion?

D: Great point! You know, there are lots of modern eco-friendly technologies for cars. Not only diesel engines, but electronic engines, which are used in new model of car called Tesla, which you can charge in the street using special electronic stations. And what about land pollution? It is widespread in Russia. There are lots of huge dumps in Moscow suburbs. I reckon, we should improve recycling industry to minimize the litter accumulation. Sorting the rubbish will help us to cope with this problem. Don't you think so?

J: You are right! In our country recycling plants aren’t widespread although problem of utilization of waste is pointed. For example in Moscow there are only two waste facilities, though Moscow produces about 22 million tons of waste per year. Unfortunately, if we take into account the present cost of secondary resources, this recycling system turns out to be economically unprofitable and cannot be widely introduced.

D: Yes, unfortunately, it is true, but nevertheless, our society needs to understand, what is more important - the future of our planet we live on or money. As for water pollution — for me it is the hardest issue. 75% of surface water and 50% of all water in Russia is now polluted. For example, factories emit a lot of waste in rivers, lakes and seas. We should cope with it by banning the wasewater emission. Don't you agree?

J: Yes, it is great problem. For example, cellulose plant near the Lake Baikal, threaten the whole ecosystem. I think that whoever causes pollution should have to pay to clean it up, one way or another. What do you think?


D: I could not agree more! They are responsible for the consequences of their actions. Well, I think, that we have discussed all the main points and gave reasonable reccomendations. Nevertheless, there are lots of other enviromental problems that need to be discussed.

 

J: yes, you are spot on.

Follow-up questions

How can the use of biodegradable packaging and environmentally friendly products improve the ecological situation?

Eco-friendly packaging is usually made from recycled materials, reducing the waste of natural resources in production. Even specific ingredients, such as soy ink, used in eco-friendly packaging will help the environment.

To what extent can changes an individual can make in their lifestyle save natural resources?



Start by living with a greater awareness of the resources that you use in your daily life. Pay attention to how you choose to heat, to travel, to use water and use products that were made by manufacturing practices. Awareness is what will allow you to then begin to make environmentally friendly choices.

How does man’s careless attitude to nature affect our environment?

It was 100 years ago that concerns were raised on continued burning of fossil fuels which would contribute to increased levels of carbon dioxide to earth's atmosphere and lead the way for climate change. The rapid industrialization and careless attitude by the mankind lead to environmental deterioration.

Is your lifestyle environmentally friendly?

 








Date: 2016-06-09; view: 1771; Нарушение авторских прав



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