Как сделать разговор полезным и приятным
Как сделать объемную звезду своими руками
Как сделать то, что делать не хочется?
Как сделать погремушку
Как сделать неотразимый комплимент
Как сделать так чтобы женщины сами знакомились с вами
Как сделать идею коммерческой
Как сделать хорошую растяжку ног?
Как сделать наш разум здоровым?
Как сделать, чтобы люди обманывали меньше
Вопрос 4. Как сделать так, чтобы вас уважали и ценили?
Как сделать лучше себе и другим людям
Как сделать свидание интересным?
What is a Market and Its Role?
Defining the term market is a problem because the term is used in so
many different ways. Often we think of markets as people, alone or in
organizations – teenagers, factory purchasing agents, department store
fashion buyers. There are products markets – for peanuts, ten-speed
bikes, machine tools. Markets are often thought of as places of exchan-
ge – shopping centers or more temporary places, like weekend “flea
markets”, or trade shows, such as furniture markets for manufacturers
and distributors. Geography can describe markets – the Asian market,
the Boston market.
Marketing has been considered as a human exchange process to
satisfy needs and wants. With this in mind, we can think of a market
as people or organizations that have wants and needs and that have the
ability and willingness to exchange something of value for them. The
most basic scheme classifies markets into two broad types: the consumer
market and the industrial market. Consumers alone or as part of a family
or household, buy products and services for their own use. The industrial
market buys products and services primarily to use in running business,
or to resell, or to produce further goods and services.
Markets bring together buyers and sellers of goods and services. In
some cases, such as a local fruit stall, buyers and sellers meet physically.
In other cases, such as the stock market, business can be transacted over
the telephone, almost by remote control. We need not go into these de-
tails. Instead, we use a general definition of markets.
A market is a shorthand expression for the process by which house-
holds’ decisions about consumption of alternative goods, firms’ deci-
sions about what and how to produce, and workers’ decisions about how
much and for whom to work are all reconciled by adjustment of prices.
Prices of goods and resources, such as labour, machinery and land,
adjust to ensure that scarce resources are used to produce those goods
and services that society demands.
Much of economics is devoted to the study of how markets and pric-
es enable society to solve the problem of what, how and for whom to
produce. Suppose you buy a hamburger for your lunch. What does this
have to do with markets and prices? You chose the cafe because it was
fast, convenient and cheap. Given your desire to eat, and your limited
resources, the low hamburger price told you that this was a good way to
satisfy your appetite. You probably prefer steak but that is more expen-
sive. The price of steak is high enough to ensure that society answers the
‘for whom’ question about lunchtime steaks in favour of someone else.
Now think about the seller’s viewpoint. The cafe owner is in the busi-
ness because, given the price of hamburger meat, the rent and the wages
that must be paid, it is still possible to sell hamburgers at a profit. If rents
were higher, it might be more profitable to sell hamburgers in cheaper
area or to switch to luxury lunches for rich executives on expense ac-
counts. The student behind the counter is working there because it is a
suitable part-time job which pays a bit of money. If the wages were a bit
lower it would hardly be worth working at all. Conversely, the job is un-
skilled and there are plenty of students looking for such work, so owners
of cafes do not have to offer very high wages.
Prices are guiding your decision to buy a hamburger, the owner’s
decision to sell hamburgers, and the student’s decision to take the job.
Society is allocating resources – meat, buildings and labour – into ham-
burger production through the price system. If nobody liked hamburg-
ers, the owner could not sell enough at a price that covered the cost of
running the cafe and society would devote no resources for hamburger
production. People’s desire to eat hamburgers guides resources into
hamburger production. However, if cattle were contracted by a disease,
thereby reducing the economy’s ability to produce meat products, com-
petition to purchase more scarce supplies of beef, hamburger producers
would be forced to raise prices, and consumers would buy more cheese
sandwiches for lunch. Adjustments in prices would encourage society to
reallocate resources to reflect the increased scarcity of cattle.
There were several markets involved in your purchase of a hamburger.
You and the cafe owner were parts of the market for lunches. The student
behind the counter was parts of the local labour market. The cafe owner
was part of the local wholesale meat market and the local market for ren-
ted buildings. These descriptions of markets are not very precise. Were
you part of the market for lunches, the market for prepared food, or the
market for sandwiches to which you would have to turn if hamburgers
had been more expensive? That is why we have adopted a very general
definition of markets which emphasizes that they are arrangements
through which prices influence the allocation of scarce resources.
1. What example is given of a market where sellers and buyers actu-
2. How are households’ decisions on what to buy are reconciled?
3. Why do prices adjust?
4. What problems do markets and prices solve for society?
5. Why is the cafe owner in business?
6. Why do cafe owners not have to pay high wages?
7. What makes society put resources into hamburger production?
8. What would consumers do if hamburger prices rose?
9. How many markets does the writer say you are involved in if you
buy a hamburger?
10. Does the writer give an exact description of a market?
Read the text and be ready to speak about market leaders, challengers and followers.
Give your own examples of each.
Date: 2015-12-13; view: 268; Нарушение авторских прав