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Linnean system of classification
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Carolus Linneus was born in Sweden in a small wooden house painted red with a roof of live turf. It was like many other houses in the village. But the house had a garden around it, so that Linneus used to say later that it was a good place for a naturalist to be born.
All the boy's teachers at school thought him stupid. But one of his father's friends observed that Carl took an unusual interest in plants and that he could identify a great many. He suggested sending Carl to study natural history. His father could give him only about forty dollars for his education, but it was thought that he could work his way. So he set off for the University of Lund. After a year he transferred to the University of Uppsala, since Uppsala had a very fine course of botany. His professor there soon grew very fond of him and saw a great promise in his work. After Linneus had finished his studies at the University he made application to the Royal Society of Sweden to send him on a scientific expedition to Lapland. The Royal Society agreed to the commission. So on May 12, 1732 Linneus set out on foot on the road leading north. He traveled mostly on foot over bad roads and through wild country for nearly a thousand miles. When he got back to Uppsala he gave a careful account of the things he had seen. The main thing among them was his new system of classification for plants and animals, which he had worked out on his journey. Three years later this system was published under the title „Systema Naturae". This system has brought order out of confusion. It was the system of nomenclature that has been used ever since.
According to Linneus system, every plant and every animal was given a double Latin name. The first word whose initial letter was capitalized would indicate to what "genus" or general class it belonged, the second word indicates a particular species. The naming of plants and animals in this way was a fascinating task. Linneus announced that everything in nature should he classified. So science as orderly classified knowledge was coming into its own. The first edition of "Systema Naturae" was published in 1735. It contained only twelve pages, but its influence was enormous. Linneus is therefore considered the founder of taxonomy — the study of the classification. All the known animal species were grouped into six classes: mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects and worms. The shortcomings were patched up easily enough later on. This form of binominal nomenclature has given the biologists an international language for life forms that has eliminated incalculable amounts of confusion. He even supplied the human species with an official name: one that it has retained ever since - Homo sapiens.
3.12 Find the pairs of synonyms:
Vital processes, to estimate, main, country, enormous, to like, village, to think, to provide, living processes, to supply, principle, to account, help, to consider, to be fond of somebody, great.
3.13 Complete the sentences:
1. Carolus Linneus was born …
2. One of his father’s friends observed …
3. He suggested sending Carl …
4. His professor grew …
5. After Linneus had finished …
6. When he got back …
7. The main thing was …
8. Later this system was published …
9. It was the system …
10. According to Linneus system …
11. The first word …
12. The first addition …
13. Linneus is considered …
3.14 Work in pairs:
A. asks questions to text 3.11;
B. answers. Then turn the roles.
Example: Where was Carrolus Linneus born?