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The noun. Category of case.





1.General characteristics.

The noun is the central lexical unit of language. It is the main nominative unit of speech. As any other part of speech, the noun can be characterised by three criteria: semantic (the meaning), morphological (the form and grammatical catrgories) and syntactical (functions, distribution).

Semantic features of the noun. The noun possesses the grammatical meaning of thingness, substantiality. According to different principles of classification nouns fall into several subclasses:

4. According to the type of nomination they may be proper and common;

5. According to the form of existence they may be animate and inanimate. Animate nouns in their turn fall into human and non-human.

6. According to their quantitative structure nouns can be countable and uncountable.

This set of subclasses cannot be put together into one table because of the different principles of classification.

Morphological features of the noun. In accordance with the morphological structure of the stems all nouns can be classified into: simple,derived (stem + affix, affix + stem thingness); compound (stem+ stem armchair) and composite (the Hague). The noun has morphological categories of number and case.

Syntactic features of the noun. The noun can be used in the sentence in all syntacticfunctions but predicate.

Case indicates the relations of the noun (or pronoun) to the other words in the sentence. Nouns denoting living beings and some nouns denoting lifeless things have two cases:

the common case.

the genitive case. (possessive)

The genitive case is formed by:

s is used with the singular and plural nouns not ending in s:

a mans job, mens job, a boys voice, boys voice.

b) a simple apostrophe ()is used with plural nouns ending in s:

the students hostel, the Smiths car.

other names ending I s can take s or the alone

The categorical form of the genitive case has 6 basic meanings:

a) Possessive Genitive: Marys father Mary has a father,

b) Subjective Genitive: The doctors arrival The doctor has arrived,

c) Objective Genitive: The mans release The man was released,

d) Adverbial Genitive: Two hours work X worked for two hours,

e) Equation Genitive: a miles distance the distance is a mile,

f) Genitive of destination: childrens books books for children,

g) Mixed Group: yesterdays paper

7. THE VERB. 1.General characteristics

Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech. First of all it performs the central role in realizing predication - connection between situation in the utterance and reality.

Semantic features of the verb. This meaning is inherent not only in the verbs denoting processes, but also in those denoting states, forms of existence, evaluations, etc.

Morphological features of the verb. The verb possesses the following grammatical categories: tense, aspect, voice, mood, person, number, finitude and phase. The common categories for finite and non-finite forms are voice, aspect, phase and finitude. The grammatical categories of the English verb find their expression in synthetical and analytical forms. The formative elements expressing these categories are grammatical affixes, inner inflexion and function words. Some categories have only synthetical forms (person, number), others - only analytical (voice). There are also categories expressed by both synthetical and analytical forms (mood, tense, aspect).

Syntactic features. The most universal syntactic feature of verbs is their ability to be modified by adverbs. The second important syntactic criterion is the ability of the verb to perform the syntactic function of the predicate..

Classifications of English verbs

According to different principles of classification, classifications can be morphological, lexical-morphological, syntactical and functional.

A. Morphological classifications..

I. According to their stem-types all verbs fall into: simple ( to go), sound-replacive (food - to feed, blood - to bleed), stress-replacive (import - to im port, transport - to transport, expanded (with the help of suffixes and prefixes):, justify, overcome, composite (correspond to composite nouns): to blackmail), phrasal: to have a smoke, to give a smile (they always have an ordinary verb as an equivalent). 2.According to the way of forming past tenses and Participle II verbs can be regular and irregular.

B. Lexical-morphological classification is based on the implicit grammatical meanings of the verb. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity verbs fall into transitive (direct, indirect, prepositional object) and intransitive. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of stativeness/non-stativeness verbs fall into stative and dynamic. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of terminativeness/non-terminativeness verbs fall into terminative(to open) and durative (to live, love). This classification is closely connected with the categories of Aspect and Phase.

C. Syntactic classifications. According to the nature of predication (primary and secondary) all verbs fall into finite and non-finite. According to syntagmatic properties (valency) verbs can be of obligatory and optional valency, and thus they may have some directionality or be devoid of any directionality. In this way, verbs fall into the verbs of directed (to see, to take, etc.) and non-directed action (to arrive, to drizzle, etc.):

D. Functional classification. According to their functional significance verbs can be notional (with the full lexical meaning), semi-notional (modal verbs, link-verbs), auxiliaries.

 

8. The category of tense.

Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. In English, this is a property of a verb form, and expresses only time-related information. Tense, along with mood, voice and person, are three ways in which verb forms are frequently characterized, in languages where those categories apply. There are languages (mostly isolating languages, like Chinese) where tense is not expressed anywhere in the verb or any auxiliaries, but only as adverbs of time, when needed for comprehension; and there are also languages (such as Russian) where tense is not deemed very important and emphasis is instead placed on aspect. The exact number of tenses in a language is often a matter of some debate, since many languages include the state of certainty of the information, the frequency of the event, whether it is ongoing or finished, and even whether the information was directly experienced or gleaned from hearsay, as moods or tenses of a verb. Some grammarians consider these to be separate tenses, and some do not.

 

9.. Quite a lot of scholars do not recognize the existence of future tenses, because what is described as the 'future' tense in English is realized by means of auxiliary verbs will and shall. Although it is undeniable that will and shall occur in many sentences that refer to the future, they also occur in sentences that do not. And they do not necessarily occur in sentences with a future time reference. That is why future tenses are often treated as partly modal.

In modern English will is preferred to shall. Shall is mainly used with I and we to make an offer or suggestion, or to ask for advice (see examples above). With the other persons (you, he, she, they) shall is only used in literary or poetic situations.

 

10. The category of aspect is a linguistic representation of the objective category of Manner of Action. It is constituted by the opposition Continuous: and:Non-Continuous forms (Progressive::Non-Progressive). Example: will be writing will write. The realization of the category of aspect is closely connected with the lexical meaning of verbs.

For example, in English the difference between I swim and I am swimming is a difference of aspect.

Aspect, as discussed here, is a formal property of a language.

There are some verbs in English that do not normally occur with progressive aspect, even in those contexts in which the majority of verbs necessarily take the progressive form. Among the so-called non-progressive verbs are think, understand, know, hate, love, see, taste, feel, possess, own, etc. The most striking characteristic that they have in common is the fact that they are stative - they refer to a state of affairs, rather than to an action, event or process.

As the result of internal transposition verbs of non-progressive nature can be found in the Continuous form: Now I'm knowing you. Generally speaking the Continuous form has at least two semantic features - duration (the action is always in progress) and definiteness (the action is always limited to a definite point or period of time). In other words, the purpose of the Continuous form is to serve as a frame which makes the process of the action more concrete and isolated.

Now I am doing my homework continuous aspect, Usually he does his homework alone common aspect.

 

11.

The category of time correlation is based on the opposition non-perfect/perfect. The idea and the meaning of the perfect form have been the matter of close consideration for centuries: in many grammars it was treated as:

-a tense form

-a relative (secondary) tense.

was the first who identified this category (the opposition perfect/non-perfect as a category) and gave its name to it.

Now there are 3 main points of view on the perfect form:

-its a relative (secondary) tense

-a category of time correlation

-it is an aspect.

The perfect form presents an action as prior to some other action (point a period of time); it is the strong member of the opposition.

The non-perfect form denotes either a simultaneous or a posterior action or even priority (I remember seeing you. In this case we speak of transposition and neutralization ( )).

The categories typical of the finite forms: the Tense, the Mood, the Person, the Number.

12. Voice -a category of the verb that expresses whether the relation between the subject and the object of the action.

The category of voice is realized through the opposition Active voice::Passive voice.

There are 2 voices in English the Active and the Passive voice. The active voice shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action expressed by the predicate verb, that it acts. For example, I dont agree with her. The passive voice serves to show that the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is not the doer of the action expressed by the predicative verb but the object of the action. The subject of a passive verb doesnt act but is acted upon, it undergoes an action. For example, I was given a present by him.

Passive voice is the marked member of opposition, where Active voice is is unmarked.

When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is said to be in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

 

 

13. The subject matter of syntax. Basic syntactic notions. Principal differences between them.
The problem referring to the domain of syntax are numerous. That is why it is not easy to give a description of its subject matter.
The definition of the sentence still remains one of the most difficult problems of general linguistics. It remains unsolved up to this date. Professor Ilyish avoids giving the definition of the sentence, he gives the following characteristic futures of the sentence: 1) It must state the relation of the sentence as a unit of language to the thought. 2) It must take into account the specific structure of the language.

Though the definition of the sentence has a long system, it still remains one of the most debatable theoretical problems and it still remains unsolved to this day.


But syntax deals not only with the sentence, but also with the word group, the word combination or the phrase. Basic syntactic notions are phrase and sentence. What is the difference between the sentence and the phrase?
1) the phrase is a means of naming some phenomena or process. The sentence is a unit of speech every word of which has its definite grammatical form. The change of the form of one or more words would produce a different sentence: He writes a letter everyday He will write 2 letters tomorrow.
2)the phrase has no intonation, when the sentence always has.

 

14. A phrase is a group of related words (within a sentence) without both subject and verb. For example, He is laughing at the joker.

A phrase functions as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or preposition in a sentence. The function of a phrase depends on its construction (words it contains).

According to Ilysh, all phrases are distributed among definite structurals patterns such as:

1)noun+noun (speech sound)

2)adj + noun (A tall man)

3)verb +verb (can go)

4)verb + noun (to hear a noise)

5) verb + adj (to seem cheerful)

Bloch bases his classification of syntagmatic grouping on the 2 main criteria:

1) The relation between the components of the syntagmatic word grouping

2) Criteria is also a relational one bt of a different type.

 

16. The Sentence. Classification of sentences according to communicative types.According to communicative types, sentences can be declarative, interrogative and imperative. 1) We communicate something in declarative sentences. As for their structure, the subject precedes the predicate. As for the intonation, they are always pronounced with a fall. For example, We have many books.2) In interrogative sentences we ask a person of something. There are several types of interrogative sentences special, general, disjunctive, alternative. Special questions are always pronounced with the falling tone, for example, What are you writing down?. General questions are pronounced with the rising tone and the word order is always inverted. For example, Is it snowing?. Disjunctive questions have a peculiar intonation pattern: the 1st part is pronounced with a fall, the 2nd part either with a fall or rise. When the 2nd part is pronounced with the fall, no answer is expected (Tom is absent, isnt he.). Alternative questions are pronounced with the rise in the 1st part and a fall in the 2nd part Is it black or white?. 3) In imperative sentences we induce a person to fulfill an action. For example, Take this book!

 

17. There are 3 cardinal sentence types in English:
1) declarative expresses a statement either informative or negative (She does not like pairs)
2) imperative puts the listener in the form of request or command to perform or not to perform a certain action. (Speak up!)
3) interrogative expresses a question that is a request for information wanted by the speaker from the listener. (to do such a thing!)
Sentences can be simple and composite.
- Simple sentences can be extended and unextended. Unextended sentence consists of the subject and predicate only, for example He is sleeping. Extended sentences have some other parts, for example He is sleeping on the sofa . Also simple sentences can be two member and one member sentences. Two member sentences can be complete (for example, where are you going?) and elliptical (Home). One member sentences can be nominal (Summer. Night. Music), imperative (Speak up!) and infinitival (to do such a thing!).

- Composite sentences can be compound and complex. In compound sentences 2 or more equal sentences are joined together with the help of coordinate conjunctions and, but. For example, It was the beginning of July and the weather was fine. Complex sentences contain the principle clause and several subordinate clauses. For example, I dont know where he was gone.

 

18. Sentences can be simple and composite.
- Simple sentences can be extended and unextended. Unextended sentence consists of the subject and predicate only, for example He is sleeping. Extended sentences have some other parts, for example He is sleeping on the sofa . Also simple sentences can be two member and one member sentences. Two member sentences can be complete (for example, where are you going?) and elliptical (Home). One member sentences can be nominal (Summer. Night. Music), imperative (Speak up!) and infinitival (to do such a thing!).

- Composite sentences can be compound and complex. In compound sentences 2 or more equal sentences are joined together with the help of coordinate conjunctions and, but. For example, It was the beginning of July and the weather was fine. Complex sentences contain the principle clause and several subordinate clauses. For example, I dont know where he was gone.

 

 

19. The predicate is the main part of speech, denoting an action, state or quality of the thing, expressed by the subject of the action.
Predicates may be classified in 2 ways, one of which is based on their structure (simple or compound), and the other on their morphological characteristics (verbal or nominal).

Types of predicate:

Predicates may be classified in 2 ways, one of which is based on their structure (simple or compound), and the other on their morphological characteristics (verbal or nominal).

Structural classification:

  1. simple predicate (verbal and nominal)
  2. compound predicate (verbaland nominal

Morphological classification:

  1. verbal predicate (simple and compound)
  2. nominal predicate(simple and compound)

The simple nominal predicate a predicate consisting merely of a noun or an adjective, without a link verb, is rare in English, but it is nevertheless a living type and must be recognized as such.(Splendid game, cricket)

The compound nominal predicate is always consists of a link verb and a predicative, which may be expressed by various parts of speech, usually a noun, an adjective, also a stative, or an adverb. (He grew more cheerful.)

 

20. The subject of a sentence is the noun---or word group acting as a noun---that performs the action expressed in the predicate of a sentence or clause. The subject may be one word: Sally loves chocolate. The subject may be in a noun phrase:

Seeing the parade was exciting .

The black and white dog was barking fiercely at the stranger.

The subject of a sentence includes the noun or pronoun along with all the words that modify, or describe it. The simple subject is the noun or pronoun all by itself.
The light blue shirt with the colorful pattern was her favorite top.
In this sentence shirt is the simple subject, and all the descriptive words tell us more about that shirt. The subject is shirt and all its modifiers (the light blue shirt with the colorful pattern), but the simple subject is simply shirt.

Sometimes a sentence has a compound subject, when there are two or more nouns in the subject:
Bobby and his friends ran outside to play basketball.

In some sentences the subject is not so easy to find. Here is an example of a sentence that seems to have no subject:
Go sit down in that chair.
We see the verb is go sit, but who is doing that action? The only noun present is chair but certainly the chair is not about to go sit!
In this sentence the speaker is giving a direct command to another person, and might have said, You go sit down in that chair. The rule to remember for a sentence that is a command is that if the subject is not named, we can assume that subject is you.

Another example to watch for is a sentence that begins with there and has a form of the verb to be. Even though the word there is at the beginning of the sentence, next to the verb, it is not the subject. See if you can find the subject and predicate in this sentence
There were three different desserts arranged on the table.
First find the verb: were arranged. Then ask, who or what were arranged? The answer is three different desserts, which is the correct subject.

 

Date: 2016-11-17; view: 3406; ; --> ...



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