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Morphology and syntax are two main parts of grammar.





Main grammatical units, a word and a sentence, are studied by different sections of Grammar: Morphology (Accidence) and Syntax. Morphology studies the structure, forms and the classification of words. Syntax studies the structure, forms and the classification of sentences. Morphology studies paradigmatic relations of words, Syntax studies syntagmatic relations of words and paradigmatic relations of sentences.

Parts of grammar

- paradigmatic morphology (Parts of speech taken separately are within paradigmatic morphology);

- syntagmatic morphology (If we say that an adjective serves to modify a noun or an adverb modifies a verb we are already in the domain of syntagmatic morphology which is therefore the study of phrases which consist of words belonging to different parts of speech);

- paradigmatic syntax (Paradigmatic syntax is а part of grammatical theory, which treats variations of one and the same sentence. e.g.: My friend has/has not come.);

- syntagmatic syntax (Syntagmatic syntax is what we traditionally call “syntax”. It studies relations between words and sentences).

Levels

phonemic level (Phonemes are meaningless units, their function is differential.) [bek] [beg]

morphemic level (Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units built up by phonemes or one phoneme.) cat-cats, friend - friendship

Leximic l evel (Words are nominative units, because they nominate things and phenomena. They are built up by morphemes.) knife – a word, smallest unit

Phrasemic level (Phrases are word combinations, they nominate complex phenomena) a small knife

Proposemic level or sentence level (Sentences nominate situation or events and express predication. Their main function is that they show the relation of the denoted situation or event to reality (time or modality). Sentences are predicative units.) Give me that knife please

Level of text, it's the main linguistic unit.

 

3. Basic units of morphology.

Morph. Morphs are the concrete elements which realize or represent morphemes in a specific context. the phonological representation of a morpheme.. free morphs Can be used independently, as separate words (clear)

Morpheme. Morphemes are the smallest linguistic elements having a grammatical meaning or a grammatical function. According бархударов morpheme represents a multitude of morphs, which posess the same meaning and stand in relation of complementary distribution. [klea] clear-clearly-clearness-unclear

Morph: free and bound.

Free morphemes can build up words by themselves, while bound can't do that. (hand + ful)

Allomorph Any of the variant forms of a morpheme. For example, the phonetic (s) of cats (kăts), (z) of pigs (pĭgz), and (ĭz) horses (hôr′sĭz) are allomorphs of the English plural morpheme.

Word. The word is a nominative unit of language; it is formed by morphemes; it enters the lexicon of language as its elementary component. together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence — a unit of information in the communication process.

 

The basic morphological notions are word and morpheme. Word is the smallest naming unit. It’s a sequence of human sounds, conveying a certain notion. Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units, into which a word form can be divided.

The word-form ‘workers’ can be divided into 3 morphemes: ‘work’ expressing the basic lexical meaning of the word; ’er” expressing the doer of the action; ‘s’ is a morpheme, expressing the idea of plurality.

In order to understand what an allomorph is, we will form an opposition – girl – girls, child- children, woman – women. Here morphemes ‘s, en, e’ have the same grammatical meaning, because they express plurality. They are allomorphs, that is variants of a morpheme of plurality.

Allomorph is a variant of a morpheme which occurs in certain environments.

Thus, the morpheme is a group of one or more allomorphs. We can distinguish root morphemes and affixal morphemes.

 

 

4. The parts of speech are classes of words, all the members of these classes having certain characteristics in common which distinguish them from the members of other classes. The problem of word classification into parts of speech still remains one of the most controversial problems in modern linguistics.
3 principles on which the classification of the words should be based according Henry Sweet: meaning, form, function.

There are four approaches to the problem:

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