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1. How do living things differ?

Biology is the scientific study of living things. There are more than 2 million species of living things on the earth. They range in size from microscopic bacteria to huge blue whales and towering redwood trees. Living things also differ greatly in where and how they live. However, all forms of life share certain characteristics that set them apart from nonliving things. These characteristics include the ability to reproduce, to grow, and to respond to changes in the environment.

2. What is biology divided into?

Traditionally, biology has been divided into two major fields. Botany deals with plants, and zoology with animals. Botany and zoology are further divided into various branches and specialized areas of study. But most branches of biology – for example, anatomy (the study of the structure of living things) and genetics (the study of heredity) – apply to both plants and animals.

Biology may also be divided into ecology, physiology, and systematics. Ecology deals with the relationships among living things and between organisms and their environment. Physiology concerns life functions, such as digestion and respiration. Systematics, also called taxon­omy, is the scientific classification of plants and animals.

3. Findings of what sciences do biologists make use of?

Biologists often make use of the methods and findings of other sciences. For instance, they rely on physics and chemistry to help them understand the processes that occur in living plants and animals. They use statistics in studying changes in the size of an animal or plant population – that is, the number of organisms of a particular species in an area. Exobiologists work with astronomers in searching for life elsewhere in the universe.

4. How has biological research affected people's lives?

Biological research has greatly affected people's lives. For example, farm production has soared as biologists have helped develop better varieties of plants and new agricultural techniques. Biologists also work in industry especially the pharmaceutical and food industries. Biotechnologists develop new methods for the ргерагаtion of products using microorganisms. Discoveries in biology have enabled doctors to prevent, treat, or cure many diseases. Research on the relationships between living things and their environment has helped in the management of wildlife and other natural resources.


Date: 2015-04-23; view: 526; Нарушение авторских прав

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