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Вопрос 4. Как сделать так, чтобы вас уважали и ценили?
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Academic-scientific monographs as specimens of expert-to-expert communication
Authors of monographs, research articles, academic essays, conference papers, and scholarly book reviews in specialist
journals tend to employ a wide variety of stylistic devices to give their own elaboration of a topic more prominence. Thus,
in the text types of description, narration, exposition, and argumentation we may come across different figures of speech,
among them metaphors and allusions to proverbs and quotations, and striking modifications of phraseological units. These
may occur in genres of both the natural and social sciences but vary in the individual text. In the last instance, authors
have their personal preferences regarding stylistic means.
The following extract from the monograph Forms of Talk by the sociolinguist Erving Goffman ( 1981) may serve as an example. Goffman clearly enjoys playing with idiomatic phrases and quotations, as in the Introduction:
(7) Thus, in talk about how individuals acted or will act, we can get by with a small repertoire of alludings and
simulations. Fiction writers and stage performers extend these everyday capacities, carrying the ability to
reinvoke beyond that possessed by the rest of us. But even here only sketching is found. So it remains to
microanalysts of interaction to lumber in where the self-respecting decline to tread. A question of pinning with
our ten thumbs what ought to be secured with a needle. With my own thumbs, in this volume I want to hold up
three matters for consideration . . . (Goffman 1981: 2)
Goffman's dual allusion can only be decoded if the reader is familiar with English literature, but the discovery of the original
source which the author has modified may give the reader intellectual pleasure. Goffman implicitly refers to the famous
quotation from Alexander Pope's Essay on Criticism ( 1711) which reads: 'Fools rush in where Angels fear to tread.' This
quotation has' become a so-called winged word and is to be found in most of the current dictionaries of English quotations.
It means: 'Foolish people act hastily and do or say things that wiser people would avoid. Angels here represent people of
wisdom' (Ridout and Witting 1967: 69). Goffman resumes the idea of rashness and clumsiness by his allusion to the
proverbial saying ten
thumbs (meaning 'unskilled hands': one can say of an awkward person: 'His fingers are all thumbs').
As shown in the following example from the same source, Goffman seems fond of modifying quotations from English
literature. The formulation 'social life is but a stage' refers to Shakespeare's play As You Like It (where Jacques says
meditatively: 'All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players . . .'). Goffman writes:
(8) So three themes, ritualization, participation framework, and embedding. It is their interplay that will be at
issue. . . . In what follows, then, I make no large literary claim that social life is but a stage, only a small
technical one: that deeply incorporated into the nature of talk are the fundamental requirements of theatricality.
(Goffman 1981: 4)
In a similar way, the monograph English for Specific Purposes ( 1987), written by Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters and
intended for applied linguists and practising foreign language teachers, abounds in literary allusions. The authors have
chosen a motto from English literature and world literature (including the Bible and Chinese philosophy) to introduce a new
chapter, and they have used the structure, plot, and vocabulary of a fairy tale to illustrate the diversification of technical
discourse by means of an allegory, entitled The City of ELT (i.e. English Language Teaching). In addition to these stylistic
devices, they use idioms and phrases to make their description livelier and more convincing:
(9) (a) The target situation analysis stage marked a certain 'coming of age' for ESP. What had previously been
done very much in a piecemeal way, was now systematized and learner's need was apparently placed at the
centre of the course design process. It proved in the event to be a false dawn. As we see in the following
chapters the concept of needs that it was based on was far too simple. (Hutchinson and Waters 1987: 12)(b)
Conclusion: Other options . . . We have noted that there is much common ground between learners of
apparently very different subject specialisms . . . Students and sponsors might feel that they are only getting
their money's worth if they get a tailor-made course. Even so, a few strategic cosmetic changes may solve this
problem. . . .For those who, in the end, feel they have to write new materials, here are a few hints:
A. Don't re-invent the wheel. Use existing materials as a source for ideas.
B. It's better to work in a team, if only to retain your sanity.
C. Don't set out to write the perfect materials on the first draft.
Materials can always be improved. Do what you can and try it out. Use what you learn from this experience
and revise and expand the materials.
E. Don't underestimate the time needed for materials writing. It can be a very time-consuming business.
F. Pay careful attention to the appearance of your materials. If they look boring and scruffy, they will be treated as such.
G. Good luck! (Hutchinson and Waters 1987: 125)
The authors use the metaphor to come of age (a phraseological unit meaning 'to become old enough to be responsible in
law'). The phrase in a piecemeal way means 'gradually', 'piece by piece', 'one thing after the other'. A false dawn is a
metaphor (not a proper idiom) designating 'a deceptive new beginning'. The expression tailor-made stands for the idea of
'appropriate (ness)'. Cosmetic changes is a clichй, an idiomatic phrase which refers to superficial changes which have no
lasting effect and do not touch the essence of a problem. The hints for the teacher who has embarked on writing teaching
material contain a proverbial saying to re-invent the wheel ('to do something superfluous; to spend or waste one's energy
on the wrong object'). The colloquial, familiar note of address is evident in the use of the phrasal verbs (set out, try out)
and in the routine formula Good luck!
Date: 2015-05-23; view: 684; Нарушение авторских прав