:

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. features of context

1. Which dialect was the most important one in the 9th century?

. Northumbrian.

. Essex.

. West Saxon.

. Mercian.

2. ____ is the change of the common Germanic consonants b, d, g, p, t, k in High German dialects.

. Verners Law

. Great vowel shift

. Second consonant shift

. Grimms Law

3. The written form of the English word is _____.

. neither conventional nor phonetic

. conventional rather than phonetic

. phonetic rather than conventional

. either phonetic or conventional

4. One of the most important ME innovations was the development of _____ as a new type of derivation.

. Contraction

. Inversion

. Rhotacism

. Conversion

5. Germanic languages are classified into ______.

. East Germanic, North Germanic, West Germanic, South Germanic

. East Germanic, West Germanic, South Germanic

. East Germanic, North Germanic, South Germanic

. East Germanic, North Germanic, West Germanic

6. The Gothic language has been preserved in written records of the _____c.

. 6th

. 9th

. 10th

. 8th

7. _____ is a Modern English phonetic change of the ME long vowels which became closer in their articulation.

. Great Vowel Shift

. Rhotacism

. Breaking

. Velar mutation

8. Language is a ______ phenomenon.

. unsocial

. phonetic

. vocal

. social

9. OE adjectives possessed the following categories: ______.

. the category of number, the category of comparison

. the category of comparison, the category of gender

. the category of comparison, the category of gender, the category of aspect

. the category of number, the category of comparison, the category of gender

10. The English language has developed on the basis of the dialect of ______.

. York

. Edinburgh

. London

. Manchester

11. One of the characteristic features of the New English period has been the development of ___.

. structural substitutes

. endings

. cases

. clauses

12. _____ is an independent vowel interchange unconnected with any phonetic conditions; its a device to differentiate between words and grammatical forms built from the same root.

. Ablaut

. Rhotacism

. Metathesis

. Breaking

13. The Germanic tribes who settled in Britain in the 5th and 6th c. spoke closely related tribal dialects belonging to _____.

. East Germanic Group

. North Germanic Group

. West Germanic Group

. South Germanic Group

14. We can distinguish _____ dialects in Old English times.

. four

. five

. two

. three

15. Printing was introduced by William Caxton in ______.

. 1567

. 1476

. 1647

. 1764.

16. In ME the weakening and loss of inflections resulted in the ______ of agreement and government.

. improving

. weakening and loss

. strengthening

. acquiring

17. According to Arakin, the end of the Middle English Period is the ______.

. Norman Conquest

. Anglo-Saxon Invasion

. Introduction of Printing

. Wars of Roses

18. It is estimated that about ____ per cent of the OE vocabulary has been lost.

. 65

. 85

. 75

. 55

19. B. Khaimovich takes the ______ century as the beginning of the OE period.

. 7th

. 6th

. 5th

. 8th

20. The earliest extant written texts in English are dated in the _____ c.

. 6th

. 8th

. 4th

. 7th

21. According to David Burnley, there are ______ periods in the history of English.

. five

. two

. three

. four

22. The order of words in a sentence was _____ in Old English.

. comparatively free

. neither free nor rigid

. comparatively rigid

. both free and rigid

23. _____ is an old English phonetic change that consists in two sounds exchanging their places (mostly [r] and a vowel).

. Verners Law

. Metathesis

. Palatal mutation

. Rhotacism

24. The ending of the comparative degree of OE adjectives was usually _____.

. er

. est

. ost

. ra

25. _____ is an old English phonetic change which took place when after a consonant had dropped, two vowels met inside a word, they were contracted into one long vowel.

. Ablaut

. Breaking

. Rhotacism

. Contraction

26. _____ is the law which expresses regular correspondences between consonants of Germanic and those of other Indo-European languages.

. Grimms Law

. Verners Law

. Rhotacism

. Voicing of consonants

27. The OE change [i] > [io] is an example of _________.

. lengthening

. rhotacsim

. velar mutation

. palatal mutation

28. The change of the ME helpe > E help Henry Sweet called ______.

. the period of vowel loss

. the period of lost endings

. the period of lost spelling

. the period of new spelling

29. The ME stressed vowels underwent the process of _______.

. diphthongization

. lengthening

. mutation

. shortening

30.The vocalization of [j] and [w] after vowels in ME brought the ______.

. monophthongization of old diphthongs

. appearance of new monophthongs

. appearance of new diphthongs

. stress of old diphthongs

31. The sound [ē] developed in ME as a result of ______.

. the lengthening of [e] in closed syllables

. the shortening of [e] in closed syllables

. the shortening of [e] in open syllables

. the lengthening of [e] in open syllable

32. The NE borrowing yacht is of ______ origin.

. German

. Arabic

. Persian

. Dutch

33. The history of the English language is usually divided into ______ main periods.

. 3

. 5

. 2

. 4

34. _____ is a kind of regressive assimilation caused by the sounds [i] and [j] in the 6th c. Under their influence the vowels of the preceding syllable moved to a higher front position.

. Palatalization of consonants

. Velar mutation

. Verners law

. Palatal mutation

35. The ME verb retained the following grammatical categories: ______.

. tense, mood, person, aspect

. tense, mood, person, number

. tense, mood, aspect, number

. tense, aspect, person, number

36. OE nouns possessed the following categories: ______.

. the category of number, the category of gender, the category of mood

. the category of number, the category of gender

. the category of number, the category of case

. the category of number, the category of gender, the category of case

37. _____ is the diphthongization of the Gc. [a] before [r], [l] plus some other consonant into [ea], also [e] > [eo], [i] > [io].

. Breaking

. Metathesis

. Unvoicing of consonants

. Ablaut

38. The weak n-declension comprised ______ nouns.

. masculine, feminine

. masculine, neuter

. feminine, neuter

. masculine, feminine, neuter

39. The only dialect in which there is an extensive collection of texts is ______.

. Northumbrian

. West Saxon

. Anglian

. Kentish

40. There were _____ moods in OE.

. three

. two

. four

. five

41. The Indo-European family of languages has ______ branches.

. 13

. 12

. 11

. 10

42. In ME we find only ____ cases in nouns.

. five

. four

. Three

. two

43. The ME personal pronouns distinguished only _____ cases.

. five

. two

. Three

. four

44. OE adjectives formed from nouns with the help of the suffix _____.

. lic

. ness

. ful

. e

45. In OE prepositions ______ followed the nouns or pronouns they governed.

. ever

. often

. never

. always

46. With the Norman Conquest, ______ became the official language of the country.

. French

. Scandinavian

. Latin

. English

47. The change of the OE feld > fēld is called ______.

. velar mutation

. lengthening

. breaking

. diphthongization

48. In OE usage of multiple negation was _____.

. normal

. wondrous

. striking

. abnormal

49. Personal pronouns of the first and second persons were the only words in OE, which distinguished _____ numbers.

. none

. three

. one

. two

50. A great part of _____ loans in ME were aristocratic words.

. Latin

. French

. German

. Scandinavian

51. Yuriy O. Zhluktenko distinguishes _____ of the comparative-historical method.

. 6 stages

. 4 stages

. three stages

. 2 stages

52. _____ is the connection between the Germanic consonant sounds and the position of the OE accent.

. Contraction

. Verners Law

. Rhotacism

. Grimms Law

53. OE verbs distinguished _____ tense(s).

. three

. one

. two

. four

54. The ______ lined of Old English poetry are contained in four manuscripts.

. 50,000

. 30,000

. 5,000

. 3,000

55. Old English is a(an) ______ language.

. synthetic

. agglutinate

. isolating

. analytic

56. Latin characters were first used in Britain in the _____c.

. 10th

. 9th

. 8th

. 7th

57. All the consonants, except _____, were doubled or lengthened between a short vowel and the sound [j].

. [m]

. [r]

. [n]

. [l]

58. The suppletive way of form-building was inherited from ancient Indo-European and restricted to ______.

. articles

. adverbs

. nouns

. verbs

59. Alternation of short and long vowels, and also alternation with a zero represent _____.

. quantitative ablaut

. relative ablaut

. comparative ablaut

. qualitative ablaut

60. The OE change of the velar consonant [k] > [k] > [ʧ] is regarded as ______.

. voicing

. mutation

. unvoicing

. palatalization

61. The OE sc was pronounced as ______.

. [ʃ]

. [ʧ]

. [ss]

. [sk]

62. Palatal mutation is a kind of _______.

. palatalization

. regressive assimilation

. ablaut

. progressive assimilation

63. Quantitative changes of stressed vowels in the ME period influenced greatly the English ____.

. vocabulary

. rhythm

. syntax

. grammatical structure

64. There existed several types of declensions of OE noun stems: ______.

. strong declension, weak declension

. strong declension, weak declension, minor declension

. weak declension, minor declension

. strong declension, minor declension

65. In OE the strong verbs can be grouped in _____ general classes.

. four

. Five

. seven

. six

66. The most productive OE adverb-forming suffix was _____.

. -lic

. -e

. -ness

. -ly

67. The distinctive endings -a, -u, -e, -an, -um, etc. of Old English were reduced to by the end of _.

. 11th c.

. 13th c.

. 12th c.

. 10th c.

68. In ME there appears a new and very productive way of forming adverbs by adding the suffix

. -lice

. -fully

. -ly

. -lie

69. The suffix ing of Participle I developed from

. -ande

. -inde

. -ende

. unde

70.In ME the lost _____ distinctions.

. case, number

. gender, number

. gender, case

. gender, case, number

71. As a spelling device the apostrophe was introduced in the ____ c.

. 18th

. 15th

. 17th

. 16th

72. The form its was introduced in the ____ c.

. 17th

. 15th

. 18th

. 16th

73. The gerund was developed in _____.

. NE

. OE

. ME

. AE

74. The extent of the OE vocabulary is estimated at ___ thousands words.

. 2 to 10

. 20 to 30

. 50 to 90

. 5 to 15

75. The words violin, piano, solo were borrowed from _____.

. Polish

. French

. Russian

. Italian

76. What century was the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle last updated?

. 10th

. 12th

. 11th

. 9th

77. What language belongs to the Old North Germanic languages?

. Old Dutch

. Old German

. Old English

. Old Icelandic

78. What language is most closely related to English?

. German

. Frisian

. Icelandic

. Dutch

79. Who were the earliest inhabitants of the British Isles?

. The Celts

. The Germans

. The Romans

. The Anglo-Saxons

*The influence of the Norman Conquest is mainly felt in English__

a) Orthography

b) Pronunciation

c) Morphology

d) Syntax

*Which kingdom was formed by Jutes?

a) Sussex

b) Kent

c) Mercia

d) Wessex

80. Which conquest is the signing of the Wedmore Treaty connected with?

. Roman.

. Scandinavian.

. Norman.

. Saxon.

81. The Norman invasion began in ______.

. 1013

. 1066

. 1055

. 1042

82. Which alphabet was used by the Germanic tribes before the 6th century?

. Latin.

. Runic.

. English.

. Gothic.

83. Which linguist did NOT suggest his own periodization of the history of English?

. Sweet.

. Verba.

. Arakin.

. Burnley.

84. Verners Law was introduced in ______.

. 1879

. 1877

. 1880

. 1878

85. The change of Gt. maiza > OE mara is an example of ______.

. rhotacism

. Grimms Law

. Verners Law

. unvoicing

86. The change [f] > [b] is regarded as a vivid example of ______.

. palatal mutation

. Verners Law

. Grimms Law

. breaking

87. The OE letter c stood for the sound [k], later [ʧ] before ______.

. diphthongs

. front vowels

. consonants

. back vowels

88. Which position was the sound [h] dropped in ME?

. Before [r], [l], and [w].

. After [r], [l], and [n].

. After [r], [l], and [w].

. Before [r], [l], and [n].

89. Which new letters were introduced in ME?

. G, k, n.

. J, q, v.

. F, m, w.

. R, b, l.

90. Which example illustrates the Great Vowel Shift?

. ME lak > NE lake.

. ME super > NE supper.

. ME sune > NE sun.

. ME helpe > NE help.

91. The category of definiteness-indefiniteness possessed OE ______.

. adjectives

. adverbs

. verbs

. nouns

92. The ME noun possessed such cases as ______.

. genitive and dative

. genitive and accusative

. common and possessive

. nominative and dative

93. OE sculan or willan + Infinitive are ______.

. modal words

. synthetic forms of the future forms

. analytical forms of the future forms

. verbal phrases

94. There are ______ main ways of enriching the OE vocabulary.

. 3

. 5

. 4

. 2

95. Which is the ME borrowing from Scandinavian?

. knife

. potato

. crime

. colonel

96. The NE borrowing coffee is of ______ origin.

. Arabic

. Chinese

. Turkish

. American

97. The NE borrowing yacht is of ______ origin.

. Dutch

. Arabic

. German

. Persian

98. The history of the English language is usually divided into ______ main periods.

. 4

. 5

. 2

. 3

99. The first English book was printed by ______.

. William Shakespeare

. William Caxton

. John Wycliffe

. Geoffrey Chaucer

100. The principal means of enriching the ME vocabulary is _______.

. word-composition

. suffixation

. prefixation

. borrowing

 

 

1. Borrowed words that are not assimilated in the adopting language are called

. historisms

. jargonisms

. barbarisms

. etymological doublets

2. How are the underlined words made: a lovely face, a friendly visit; to treat lovely, to behave friendly?

. conversion

. compounding

. back formation

. suffixation

3. What is the origin of the affixes ism, -ics, -ist, poly-, dis-?

. Greek

. Latin

. French

. Scandinavian

4. Structurally morphemes are divided into

. free, bound, semi-bound

. productive and unproductive

. derivational and inflexional

. roots and affixes

5. What morphs are characterized by the following definition, "They are identical in meaning and have different phonetic shapes in different contexts"?

. root morphs

. allomorphs

. allophones

. suppletive morphs

6. What is the process of forming the homonyms cab (cabriolet) - cab (cabbage)

. shortening

. split of polysemy

. borrowing

. conversion

7. Which line accounts for the metonymy?

. He had an egg-like head and frog-like jaws

. I have never read Balzac in the original

. My heart is beating with excitement.

. What a storm of applause!

8. Which line accounts for the lexical homonyms?

. some - sum, so - saw, flu - flew

. nail - nail, bank - bank, yard - yard

. throne-thrown, saw-sore, bear-bare

. asked - asked, put - put, brother's brothers

9. What is "a synonymic dominant"?

. a general term, neutral in style and with a great combining power

. etymologically it is a genuine word

. it is a loan word

. structurally it is an unproductive word

10. Archaisms may be used

. to show that the speaker is attached to usage of unusual words

. to avoid tautology

. to produce humorous effect

. to create the historic atmosphere

11. Which of the words are the native ones?

. came, crocodile, hyena, gorilla, lynx, monkey

. hen, cow, goat, crow, bird, bear, fox, hare, lark

. potato, tomato, tobacco, macho, fiesta

. pigeon, turkey, kangaroo, giraffe, squirrel, zebra

12. Find the proper type of conversion of the words given below: round a round, criminal a criminal, to say a say, to try a try

. adjectivization

. substantivation

. verbalization

. adverbalization

13. What are word-building models of the words to burgle, to edit, to skate, to wellwish, to enthuse?

. conversion

. affixation

. back-formation

. reduplication

14. Which of the groups of words listed below corresponds to passive vocabulary?

. neologisms, historisms, archaisms

. borrowings and slang words

. archaisms, dialect words, borrowings

. professionalisms, barbarisms, loan words

15. The connotative component is what is suggested by or associated with

. a certain referent

. a certain concept

. a certain symbol

. a certain word meaning

16. Which line accounts for the homographs?

. bass - bass, desert - desert, buffet - buffet

. throne-thrown, saw-sore, bear-bare

. pole - poll, scent - sent, plain - plane

. cot - cot, game - game, match match

17. Synonyms belonging to the same stylistic layer, having the same connotation which are characterized by a distinction in the differentiating semes of the denotational component of their lexical meaning are named

. phraseological

. absolute

. ideographic

. stylistic

18. What types of phraseological units did acad. V.Vynogradov single out?

. one-summit and two-summit units

. nominative and communicative

. phraseological fusions, phraseological unities, phraseological combinations

. phrasemes and idioms

19. What systemic relationships are based on the linear character of speech?

. derivational

. syntagmatic

. synonymous

. paradigmatic

20. Words which occur in several languages as a result of borrowing from the same ultimate source are

. historisms

. new words

. international words

. archaic words

21. Which group of words belongs to the native stock?

. nut, acorn, fir, walnut, hazel-nut, ash, oak

. potato, tomato, tobacco, macho, fiesta

. apricot, orange, banana, pomegranate, melon, cherry, lemon

. plum, palm, acacia, pine, baobab, mallow, pear

22. By a translation loan is meant

. two or more words of the same language which came by different routes from one and the same basic original word

. a word which occur in several languages as a result of borrowing from the same ultimate source

. a word or a phrase formed from the material available in the given language but after a foreign pattern by means of literal, morpheme-for-morpheme translation of every component

. the development in an English word of a new meaning under the influence of a correlated unit in some other language

23. The morphemes -ness, -less, -dis are singled out as

. archaic

. semi-bound

. free

. bound

24. What morphemes are singled out semantically?

. roots and affixes

. roots, affixes, inflexions

. free, bound, semi-bound

. grammatical inflexions

25. The suffix ie in auntie is named

. productive

. archaic

. augmentive

. diminutive

26. A word is a unity of the sound-form and

. a referent

. a meaning

. a notion

. a symbol

27. A branch of lexicology which studies the problem of lexical meaning is called

. etymology

. toponymy

. morphology

. semasiology

28. Which line accounts for the metaphor?

. Kyiv is the heart of our country

. The coffee-pot is boiling

. He speaks like a book

. The pit loudly applauded

29. What process of semantic changes is defined as "a process as the result of which for one reason or another a word becomes disrepute and less respectable"?

. narrowing of meaning

. extension of meaning

. degradation of meaning

. transference of meaning

30. Which of the definitions corresponds to the notion "synonyms"?

. words that are identical in sound-form but different in meaning

. words that partially coincide in their sound-form but are different in meaning

. words that are characterized by their idiomaticity

. words belonging to the same part of speech, that are different in sound-form but identical or similar in meaning

31. Descriptive lexicology studies

. the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given tongue

. the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of its development

. the structure of vocabulary units

. the history of the vocabulary of the language showing its change and development in the course of time

32. Choose a set of words where paradigmatic relationships are observed

. white light, white crow, white night, white lie, white man

. heavy sky, heavy bag, heavy rain, heavy heart, heavy supper

. green leaves, green years, green man, in the long green

. hand, handy, handwriting, handwritten, handful, handball

33. Borrowed words that are not assimilated in the adopting language are

. international wolds

. historisms

. barbarisms

. jargonisms

34. What is the difference between compound words and nominal word combinations?

. they have different meanings where the first element modifies the other

. they can be of different parts of speech

. they have different connotation

. in a combination of words each element is stressed and written separately

35. Conversion as the morphological way of forming new words was put forward by

. A. Smirnitsky

. O. Jespersen

. Ch. Fries

. O. Akhmanova

36. Compounding is the type of word-formation where

. words consist of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms

. new words are formed by adding affixes to different stems

. new words are formed without adding any word-building elements

. verbs are formed from nouns by shifting the stem

37. The term "conversion" was first introduced by

. J. Lyons

. S.Ullmann

. O. Jespersen

. H. Sweet

38. Pick out the historisms from the groups below

. toreador, rajah, shah, mayor

. anarch, baron, musketeer, vassal, carbonari

. mom, eve, thy, thou, aye, nay, moon, oft

. pigeon, turkey, kangaroo, giraffe, squirrel, zebra

39. What is the process of forming the synonyms radiant bright?

. conversion

. homonyms

. borrowing

. shift of meaning

40. Point out the phraseological units that are considered to be synonymous

. horn of plenty, Augean stables, Trojan horse, vanity of vanities

. through thick and thin, by hook or by crook, for love or money

. by little and little, on the spot, to begin at the wrong end

. to take the bull by the horns, in all respects, at one jump

41. Special lexicology studies

. characteristic features of words in the vocabulary of every language

. the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given tongue

. the history of the vocabulary of the language showing its change and development in the course of time

. the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of its development

42. What language are the following words borrowed from: apricot, banana, bravado, canoe, embargo, sombrero, potato, tobacco?

. Italian

. French

. Spanish and Portuguese

. Latin

43. By a translation loan is meant

. two or more words of the same language which came by different routes from one and the same basic original word

. a word which occur in several languages as a result of borrowing from the same ultimate source

. the development in an English word of a new meaning under the influence of a correlated unit in some other language

. a word or a phrase formed from the material available in the given language but after a foreign pattern by means of literal, morpheme-for-morpheme translation of every component

44. Word-composition is the type of word-formation where

. words are formed by joining two clipped stems

. new words are formed by adding affixes to different stems

. words consist of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms

. new words are formed without adding any word-building elements

45. What is understood by "meaning" in terms of the functional approach?

. a certain reflection in our mind of objects or relations that exist in reality

. the sum total of what the word contributes to different contexts in which the word may appear

. a certain reflection in our mind of objects or relations that are connected with their sound-form

. a unity of form and concept

46. What structure is singled out within interconnected lexical meanings of the polysemantic word?

. a concept

. a referent

. a lexico-semantic variant

. a semantic nucleus

47. Choose a set of words where syntagmatic relationships are observed?

. green leaves, green years, green fruit, green teacher

. bag, briefcase, handbag, purse, rucksack, suitcase

. hi, hello, bye, see you soon, so long, all right

. teacher, coach, lecturer, instructor, tutor, pedagogue

48. The difference between phraseological units and free word combinations lies in

. syntactical peculiarities (impossibility of transformations)

. both syntactical and semantic peculiarities

. semantic peculiarities (they are partially or fully non-motivated)

. morphological peculiarities

49. What term can be defined as "words that are identical in their sound form but have no common semes or association"?

. polysemantic words

. phraseological units

. paronyms

. lexical homonyms

50. The denotative component of the lexical meaning is

. the component of a word-meaning which is recurrent in the identical sets of grammatical forms of different words

. a minimal distinctive unit

. the lexical nucleus of a word which is connected with the referent and notion the given word denotes

. the material meaning of a word which is directly connected with the object or concept the given word expresses

51. What is understood by "emotional charge"?

. the social sphere in which the discourse takes place

. the attitude of the speaker to what is being spoken about

. the potential capacity of words to occur with other words

. shades of meaning or different degrees of a given quality

52. Define the superordinate term among the following hyponyms: stalk, skin, flesh, seed, core.

. an orange

. a lemon

. a hazelnut

. an apple

53. Point out the generic term (hyperonym) in the following group of words: rubbers, shoes, footwear, over-shoes, slippers, boots, felt-boots.

. boots

. footwear

. slippers

. shoes

54. What systemic relationships are based on the linear character of speech?

. syntagmatic

. derivational

. paradigmatic

. polysemous

55. What morphemes are characterized by the following definition, "They are based on the correlation of different roots"?

. allomorphs

.root morphs

. suppletive morphs

. bound morphemes

56. The suffix ette in kitchenette is called

. productive

. semi-bound

. augmentive

. diminutive

57. What type of connotative component can be found in womanish?

. neutral

. positive

. diminutive

. negative

58. The suffix ling in duckling is called

. negative

. diminutive

. productive

. augmentive

59. Define the type of word-formation of the following words: ping-pong, flim-flam, tittle-tattle, pooh-pooh, walkie-talkie.

. sound imitation

. reduplication

. blending

. back formation

60. What term is defined as "the object in the outside world to which the sound form refers"?

. a symbol

. a concept

. a sign

. a referent

61. Classify the words according to the type of motivation: tongues (of flame), key (to a mystery), green (with envy), head (of a procession)

. phonetic

. folk etymology

. semantic

. morphological

62. Define the meaning of face in the sentence: Their defeat seemed certain in the face of such a powerful opponent.

. look, expression

. facade, front

. surface of something

. whereas

63. Define the meaning of face in the sentence: She showed great courage in the face of danger.

. whereas

. look, expression

. despite

. front

64. What is understood by "meaning" in terms of the functional approach?

. the sum total of what the word contributes to different contexts in which the word may appear

. the object in the outside world to which the sound form refers

. a certain reflection in our mind of objects or relations that are connected with their sound-form

. a certain reflection in our mind of objects or relations that exist in reality

65. What process of semantic changes is defined as "a process as the result of which for one reason or another a word becomes disrepute and less respectable"?

. transference of meaning

. elevation of meaning

. narrowing of meaning

. degradation of meaning

66. Define the process of semantic changes in the following words: deer, comrade, wife, meat.

. elevation of meaning

. narrowing of meaning

. transference of meaning

. degradation of meaning

67. Define the process of semantic changes in the following words: paper, manuscript, pipe, vandal, Utopian.

. extension of meaning

. narrowing of meaning

. elevation of meaning

. transference of meaning

68. What term can be defined as "words that are identical in their sound form but have no common semes or association"

. paronyms

. antonyms

. polysemantic words

. lexical homonyms

69. Synonyms belonging to the same stylistic layer, having the same connotation which are characterized by the differentiating semantic components of their denotation are named

. stylistic

. relative

. absolute

. ideographic

70. Which of the linguists proposed the classification based on the combination of functional, semantic and structural criteria?

. A. Koonin

. A. Smyrnitskyi

. V. Vynogradov

. N. Amosova

71. What relationships have the terms "phraseological unit", "set phrase", "idiom" between themselves?

. synonymous

. antonymous

. polysemous

. homonymous

72. Words with different spellings and meanings which historically come back to one and the same source are

. historisms

. etymological doublets

. archaic words

. international words

73. What group do the following stems belong: playwright, seaman, autobiography, afterthought, shipwright?

. free

. semi-bound

. root morphemes

. bound

74. What is the process of forming the synonyms to ask to question?

. conversion

. shift of meaning

. variants of English

. borrowing

75. What is the process of forming the homonyms answer n. answer v?

. shift of meaning

. borrowing

. shortening

. conversion

76. What is the process of forming the homonyms empty adj. empty v?

. shift of meaning

. clipping

. borrowing

. conversion

77. What is the process of forming the synonyms to help to aid?

. variants of English

. borrowing

. conversion

. shift of meaning

78. What is the process of forming the synonyms kingly royal?

. variants of English

. borrowing

. conversion

. shift of meaning

79. What is the process of forming the synonyms to die to be no more?

. shift of meaning

. borrowing

. conversion

. variants of English

80. What is the process of forming the synonyms to think to guess?

. variants of English

. borrowing

. conversion

. shift of meaning

81. What is the process of forming the synonyms to rise to ascend?

. shift of meaning

. variants of English

. conversion

. borrowing

82. What is the process of forming the synonyms to end to conclude?

. variants of English

. borrowing

. conversion

. shift of meaning

83. What is the process of forming the synonyms fair attractive?

. shift of meaning

. conversion

. variants of English

. borrowing

84. What is the process of forming the synonyms holy sacred?

. conversion

. variants of English

. borrowing

. shift of meaning

85. What is the process of forming the synonyms teaching guidance?

. shift of meaning

. variants of English

. borrowing

. conversion

86. What is the process of forming the synonyms Co. Inc.?

. conversion

. variants of English

. borrowing

. shift of meaning

87. What is the process of forming the synonyms long-distance call trunk call?

. shift of meaning

. borrowing

. variants of English

. conversion

88. What is the process of forming the synonyms to die to pass away?

. variants of English

. shift of meaning

. borrowing

. conversion

89. What is the process of forming the synonyms to walk to take a walk?

. borrowing

. other word-forming processes

. shift of meaning

. conversion

90. What is the process of forming the synonyms choose pick out?

. borrowing

. shift of meaning

. conversion

. other word-forming processes

91. What is the process of forming the synonyms memorandum memo?

. shift of meaning

. conversion

. other word-forming processes

. borrowing

92. What is the process of forming the homonyms son n. sun n.?

. conversion

. convergents

. shift of meaning

. borrowing

93. What is the process of forming the homonyms peace n. piece n?

. shift of meaning

. clipping

. conversion

. borrowing

94. What is the process of forming the homonyms nail n. nail n.?

. split of polysemy

. shift of meaning

. borrowing

. conversion

95. What is the process of forming the homonyms sense n. sense n.?

. borrowing

. conversion

. split of polysemy

. shift of meaning

96. What is the process of forming the homonyms capital n. capital n.?

. split of polysemy

. clipping

. shift of meaning

. borrowing

97. What is the process of forming the homonyms air n. air n.?

. shift of meaning

. conversion

. borrowing

. split of polysemy

98. What is the process of forming the homonyms broadcast v. broadcast n.?

. conversion

. split of polysemy

. shift of meaning

. compounding

99. Define the meaning of the suffix ish in babyish, childish, girlish, womanish

. belonging to some nationality or locality

. approaching the quality of

. diminutive

. like, having the quality of

100. What group do the following stems belong: fashionmonger, shock-proof, trustworthy, cameraman, playboy?

. bound

. root morphemes

. free

. semi-bound

1. The belief that humans are the most important elements in the universe and reality can be approached exclusively in terms of human values and experience is known as

. polyphobia

. polycentrism

. anthropophobia

. anthropocentrism

2. The ability to speak a certain language is known as the

. phonetics competence

. grammar competence

. language competence

. vocabulary competence

3. Cultural competence presupposes having knowledge required for successful communication.

. superficial

. rudimentary

. foreground

. background

4. False friends of the interpreter are a distinct group of words, which constitute a special difficulty for the translator.

. international

. pseudo-international

. transnational

. pseudo-transnational

5. Words denoting the subjects and notions from the everyday life, culture, historical epoch, social order, state system, folklore means, specific peculiarities of a nation that differentiate it from the other ones are known as

. realia words

. regalia words

. real words

. regal words

6. Lexical units that evoke the same or very similar complex of associations, stereotypical ideas, images, pictures, mental concepts in the mind of all or the majority of representatives of a certain lingual and cultural community are known as

. vernal symbols

. verbal symbols

. nouns

. verbs

7. Language is

. a syntax of signs expressing ideas

. a syntax of science expressing ideas

. a system of signs expressing ideas

. a system of science expressing ideas

8. The complex whole that includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, customs and any other habits and capabilities acquired by human beings as members of society is known as

. subculture

. culture

. majority

. minority

9. The study of humans, their origins, physical characteristics, institutions, religious beliefs, social relationships, etc. is known as

. anatomy

. biology

. anthropology

. astronomy

10. A subdivision of a national culture or an enclave within it with a distinct integrated network of behaviour, beliefs, and attitudes is known as

. citizenship

. nationality

. subculture

. culture

11. The statement the distinctions encoded in one language are not found in any other language refers to the principle of linguistic

. subjectivity

. relativity

. optimism

. determinism

12. The statement language determines the way we think refers to the principle of linguistic

. subjectivity

. optimism

. determinism

. relativity

13. Background knowledge is the knowledge about specific realia both of the speaker and the recipient of the message.

. individual

. material

. mutual

. spiritual

14. The scientific study of humans, their origins, physical characteristics, institutions, religious beliefs, social relationships, etc. is known as

. anatomy

. anthropology

. biology

. astronomy

15. A phenomenon connected with the sphere of the abstract and containing the multitude of ideas, notions and attainments about the outer world and principles of its existence is known as the

. language photograph of the world

. language picture of the world

. conceptual photograph of the world

. conceptual picture of the world

16. The result of the verbal manifestation (verbalization) of the ideas, notions and attainments about the outer world constituting the conceptual picture of the world is known as the

. language photograph of the world

. language picture of the world

. conceptual photograph of the world

. conceptual picture of the world

17. Concepts are constituent parts of the picture of the world.

. conceptual

. polygraphic

. photographic

. monographic

18. Verbalized concepts are constituent parts of the picture of the world.

. photographic

. conceptual

. language

. monographic

19. The Russian linguist Yuriy Stepanov treats the concept as the of culture in the human mind.

. bindle

. bondage

. bundle

. bandage

20. The Polish linguist Anna Wierzbitska defines the concept as an object of the world of the having a name and reflecting the culturally specified peoples idea of the world of the

. Real, Ideal

. Reel, Peel

. Peel, Reel

. Ideal, Real

21. An abstract, generalized idea of something is known as a

. thought

. plot

. consent

. concept

22. Interviewing the informants aiming at getting sets of associations connected with a certain word is known as an

. associative discussion

. associative initiative

. associative thinking

. associative experiment

23. Transcription is the transmission of of a foreign word using the of the alphabet of the receiving language.

. letters, sounds

. sounds, letters

. sounds, sounds

. letters, letters

24. Transliteration is the transmission of of a foreign word using the of the alphabet of the receiving language.

. letters, sounds

. letters, letters

. sounds, sounds

. sounds, letters

25. Calque or translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

. loan

. literary

. mean

. loaf

26. The Linguistic Relativity Theory is known as the Hypothesis.

. Sapir-Whorf

. Whorf-Humboldt

. Humboldt-Sapir

. Sapir-Humboldt

27. Pseudo-international words causing a special difficulty in translation are known as the friends of a translator/interpreter.

. trash

. valse

. false

. flash

28. A scientific discipline dealing with the language expression of the culturally specific information, linguistic means of representation of the unique extra-linguistic content is known as

. Linguistic County Studies

. Linguistic Federation Studies

. Linguistic Country Studies

. Linguistic State Studies

29. Linguistic Country Studies is closely related to

. Economics

. Medical Science

. Country Studies

. Celestial Mechanics

30. The transmission of sounds of a foreign word using the letters of the alphabet of the receiving language is known as

. translation

. transcription

. transmission

. transliteration

31. The transmission of letters of a foreign word using the letters of the alphabet of the receiving language is known as

. translation

. transcription

. transliteration

. transmission

32. A member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment is known as a

. guerilla

. Godzilla

. gorilla

. barilla

33. A loose sashed ankle-length garment with wide sleeves, worn in Japan is called

. kimono

. dress

. domino

. stress

34. A violent wind storm consisting of a tall column of air which spins round very fast and causes a lot of damage is called

. tornado

. tsunami

. tomato

. potato

35. A long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance is called

. tsunami

. tomato

. potato

. tornado

36. A large tract of land (esp. one in North America) together with the necessary personnel, buildings and equipment for rearing livestock (esp. cattle) is called

. banjo

. bungle

. jungle

. rancho

37. A member of an airborne unit is called

. policeman

. looser

. Trooper ( , , , , )

. paratrooper

38. A Japanese hostess trained to entertain men with conversation, dance, and song is called

. miss

. geisha

. missis

. landlady

39. A corpse supposed to leave its grave at night to drink the blood of the living by biting their necks with long pointed canine teeth is called

. wire

. fire

. empire

. vampire

40. A territorial division of some countries forming the chief unit of local administration is called

. prairie

. steppe

. bounty

. county

41. A large open area of grassland (esp. in North America) is called

. wilderness

. prairie

. desert

. waste

42. The way of rendering as tsar in English is called

. realia substitution

. transcription

. calque

. transliteration

43. The way of rendering brain-drain as - in Ukrainian is called

. transcription

. realia substitution

. calque

. transliteration

44. The way of rendering know-how as - in Ukrainian is called

. calque

. realia substitution

. transliteration

. transcription

45. The way of rendering impeachment as in Ukrainian is called

. transcription

. transliteration

. realia substitution

. calque

46. The way of rendering tomahawk as in Ukrainian is called

. calque

. transcription

. realia substitution

. transliteration

47. The way of rendering skyscraper as in Ukrainian is called

. transcription

. realia substitution

. transliteration

. Calque

48. The way of rendering soldier of fortune as in Ukrainian is called

. calque

. realia substitution

. transcription

. transliteration

49. The way of rendering cold war as in Ukrainian is called

. realia substitution

. transcription

. transliteration

. calque

50. The way of rendering wallpaper as in Ukrainian is called

. transliteration

. calque

. realia substitution

. transcription

51. The way of rendering workaholic as in Ukrainian is called

. transcription

. transliteration

. realia substitution

. calque

52. The philosophical viewpoint arguing that human beings are the central or most significant entities in the world is known as

. anthropocentrism

. polycentrism

. polyphobia

. anthropophobia

53. Language competence is

. the ability to teach a certain language

. the ability to speak a certain language

. the ability to study a certain language

. the ability to learn a certain language

54. Cultural competence presupposes having background required for successful communication.

. idea

. knowledge

. image

. thought

55. Pseudo-international words constituting a special difficulty for the translator are known as...

. false friends of the intruder

. false friends of the interpreter

. false enemies of the interpreter

. false enemies of the intruder

56. Words denoting the subjects and notions from the everyday life, culture, historical epoch, social order, state system, folklore means, specific peculiarities of a nation that differentiate it from the other ones are known as

. realia words

. regal words

. real words

. regalia words

57. Lexical units that evoke the same or very similar complex of , stereotypical ideas, images, pictures, mental concepts in the mind of all or the majority of representatives of a certain lingual and cultural community are known as verbal symbols.

. communities

. societies

. confederations

. associations

58. Language is

. a system of signs depressing ideas

. a system of signs expressing ideas

. a system of science expressing ideas

. a syntax of science expressing ideas

59.


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