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The distinctive function of sentence-stress





Соколова p200

S-s is capable of differentiating the actual meaning of the sentence and its syntactical structure. (WHY are you reading, Johnson? Why are you READING, Johnson?)

S-s is often differentiates the attitude of the speaker (I like BETTY/ I LIKE Betty).

Stressed and unstressed words in sentence stress

In general questions the final stress falls on the adverbials or on direct objects following the verb (Do you speak ENGLISH? – low-rise). It is different from Russian. In Russian the final stress falls on a verb (Вы ГОВОРИТЕ по-английски?)

The negative particle not generally takes the stress (He did NOT say a word.) In Russian the particle не remains unstressed (Он не сказал ни СЛОВА.)

The final stress does not fall on the last element in the word combinations: and so on, and so forth, in a day or two etc. (He will come in a DAY or two. And SO on.)

The conjunction as…as is not stressed (She is as pretty as her mother.)

The word good is not generally stressed in the expressions: Good morning etc. when greeting the person (Good MORNING, Mr White! Good NIGHT!)

The word street when used in the names of streets is not stressed (They live in GORKY street.)

 

Rhythm

Соколова p206

 

 

Tempo

Соколова p203

 

 

The Descending types of Pre-Nuclear (Heads)

In such heads the voice usually moves down from a medium or high level to the low one. The stressed syllables form a descending sequence. The first stressed syllable of the head is the highest, the following ones carry the pitch lower.

The head is called stepping when syllables move down by steps. (I don’t want to go to cinema)

The head is called falling when the stressed syllables also move down by steps but intervening unstressed syllables fall down, continuing the descending direction.

There are cases when unstressed or partially stressed syllables move up. They are pronounced higher than the stressed syllables. This type of descending head is called scandent.



If the voice moves down by slides within stressed syllables the head is called sliding. Unstressed or partially stressed syllables between the slides usually continue the fall.

Within long intonational-groups gradually descending heads (usually stepping or falling) may be broken by the so-called accidental rise. This happens when one of the syllables is pronounced on a higher pitch level than the preceding one. The broken descending head is very common when one particular word in a phrase should by singled out.

The Ascending types of Pre-nuclear (Heads)

They are the opposite of descending ones: the first stressed syllable is low in the pitch, each following stressed syllable being higher than the preceding one; thus the stressed syllables form an ascending sequence.

If the voice moves up by steps and the intervening unstressed or partially stressed syllables continue the rise the head is called rising. (I don’t want to go to the cinema)

If the voice moves up by slides the head is called climbing; unstressed or half-stressed syllables glide too.

The level types of Pre-Nuclear (Heads)

All syllables are pronounced on more or less same note of a pitch level.

If they are on a high level the head is called the High Level Head. This head usually occurs before the high-falling, high-rising and rising-falling nuclear tones.

If the pre-nuclear stressed or half-stressed syllables are pronounced in the medium pitch level the head is called medium level.

If the pre-nuclear stressed syllables are pronounced in the low pitch level the head is called Low Level Head.

 

Types of Pre-Head (Pre-Nucleus)

Соколова p146

 






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