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Minor types of word-formation
Word-formation is the system of derivative types of words and the process of creating new words from the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns. A distinction is made between two principal types of word-formation: word-derivation and word-composition.
The basic ways of forming words in word-derivation are affixation and conversion. Affixation is the formation of a new word with the help of affixes, e.g. heartless (from heart), to overdo (from to do). Conversion is the formation of a new word b> bringing a stem of this word into a different formal paradigm, e.g. a fall (from to fall), to slave (from a slave). The basic form of the original and the basic form of the derived words in case of conversion are homonymous.
Word-composition is the formation of a new word by combining two or more stems which occur in the language as free forms, e.g. doorhandle. house-keeper.
Араrt from principal there are some minor types of modern word- formation. i.e. shortening, blending, acronymy. sound interchange, sound imitation, distinctive stress, and back-formation.
Shortening is the formation of a word by cutting off a part of the word. According to the part of the word that is cut off (initial, middle or final) there are the following types of shortenings: 1) initial.fend (v) < defend, phone < telephone; 2) medial, specs < spectacles, fancy < fantasy, 3) final, ad. advert < advertisement, veg < vegetables.3)both initial and final, flu < influenza, fridge < refrigerator.
Blendingis the formation of a new word by combining pans of two words. Blends may be of two types: 1) additive type that may be transformed into a phrase consisting of complete stems combined by the conjunction and, e.g. smog — sm(oke) 2) restrictive type that can be transformed into a phrase, the first element of which serves as a modifier for the second, e.g.: telecast television broadcast.
Acronymy - is the formation of a word from the initial letters of a word combination. There are two basic types of acronyms: 1) acronyms which are read as ordinary English words, e.g. UNESCO— the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization; 2) acronyms with the alphabetic reading, ВBС — the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Sound-interchangeis the formation of a word due to an alteration inthe phonemic composition of its root. 1) vowel-interchange: food — to feed. 2) consonant-interchange: advice — to advise.
Sound imitation(onomatopoeia)is the naming of an action or a thing by a more or less exact reproduction of the sound associated with it. cf.: cock-a-doodle-do (English) — ку-ка-ре-ку (Russian). chatter, babble,splash, clink. whip, swing.
Back-formationis the formation of a new word by subtracting a real or supposed suffix from the existing words. The process is based on analogy. For example, the word to butle ‘to act or serve as a butler' is derived by subtraction of -er from a supposedly verbal stem in the noun butler.
Distinctive stressis the formation of a word by means of the shift of the stress in the source word, cf: increase (n) — in'crease (v), absent (adj) — ab'sent (v).
20. Word-meaning. Referential, functional and operational approaches to word-meaning.
21. Types of meaning. Aspects of lexical meaning.
The grammatical meaning is defined as an expression in speech of relationship between words. Grammatical meaning is the component of meaning recurrent in identical sets of individual forms of different words, as. for example, the tense meaning in the word-forms of the verbs: asked, thought: the case meaning in the word-forms of various nouns: girl s, boy's, night's; the meaning of plurality which is found in the word-forms of nouns: Joys, tables, places.
The lexical meaning of the word is the meaning proper to the given linguistic unit in all its forms and distributions. The word-forms go, goes. went, going, gone possess different grammatical meanings of tense, person, number, but in each form they have one and the same semantic component denoting the process of movement*.
ASPECTS OF LEXICAL MEANING
· the denolational aspect;
· the connotational aspect:
· the pragmatic aspect.
1 is the part of lexical meaning which establishes correlation between the name and the object, phenomenon, process or characteristic feature of concrete reality (or thought as such), which is denoted by the given word. For example the den meaning of booklet is ‘a small thin book that gives information about something'. It is through the denotational aspect of meaning that the bulk of information is conveyed in the process of communication. The denotational aspect of lexical meaning expresses the notional content of a word.
3 is the pan of meaning which reflects the attitude of the speaker towards what he speaks about. Connotation conveys additional information in the process of communication. Connotation includes:
· the emotive charge, e.g. daddy as compared to father.
· evaluation, which may be positive or negative, e.g. clique (a small group of people who seem unfriendly to other people) as compared to group (a set of people):
· intensity (or expressiveness), e.g. adore as compared to love:
· imagery, e.g. to wade — to walk with an effort (through mud. water or anything that makes progress difficult). The figurative use of the word gives rise to another meaning which is based on the same image as the first — to wade through a book.
3 is the part of meaning, that conveys information on the situation of communication. Like the connotational aspect, the pragmatic aspect falls into four closely linked together subsections:
· information on the "time and space” relationship of the participants.
· information on the participants and the given language community.
· information on the tenor of discourse.
· information on the register of communication.
22. Change of meaning. Causes, nature and results of semantic change.
Causes of Semantic Change. The factors accounting for semantic changes may be roughly subdivided into two groups: a) extra-linguistic: b) linguistic.
By extra-linguistic causes various changes in the life of the speech community are meant, i.e. changes in economic and social structure, changes in scientific concepts. For example, changes in the way of life of the British brought about changes in the meaning hlaford. Originally the word meant ‘bread-keeper* («хранитель хлеба»), and later on master, ruler' («повелитель, лорд»).
Some changes of meaning occur due to purely linguistic causes, i.e. factors acting within the language system. The commonest form which this influence takes is the so-called ellipsis. In a phrase made up of two words one of these is omitted and its meaning is transferred to its partner. For example, the verb to stone in Old English (OF.) meant to die' and was habitually used in collocation with the word hunger. In the 16' century the verb to starve itself acquired the meaning 'to die of hunger'.
Another linguistic cause is discrimination/differentiation of synonyms which can be illustrated by the semantic development of a number of words. In OE the word land meant both solid pan of earth's surface' and 'the territory of a nation’. In the Middle English period the word country? was borrowed as its synony m. The meaning of the word land was somewhat altered and 'the territory of a nation' came to be denoted by the borrowed word country.
Fixed context may be regarded as another linguistic factor in semantic change. For example, the word token, when brought into competition with the word sign, became restricted in use to a number of set expressions, such as love token, token of respect and also became specialized in meaning.
Nature of Semantic Change. There are two kinds of association involved in various semantic changes:similarity of meanings, contiguity of meanings.
Similarity of meanings or metaphor may be described as the semantic process of associating two referents, one of which in some way resembles the other. The word hand, for instance, acquired in the I6lh century the meaning of a pointer of a clock because of the similarity of one of the functions performed by the hand. See the expression hands of the clock (watch).
Contiguity of meanings or metonymymay be described as the semantic process of associating two referents one of which makes part of the other or is closely connected with it. This can be illustrated by the use of the word tongue — 'the organ of speech' in the meaning of 'language' (as in mother tongue).
Results of Semantic Change. Results of semantic change can be generally observed in the changes of the denotational meaning of the word, i.e. in restriction or extension of meaning.
Restriction of meaning can be illustrated by the semantic development of the word hound which used to denote dog of any breed' but now denotes only ‘a dog used in the chase'. If the word with a new restricted meaning comes to be used in the specialized vocabulary of some limited group within the speech community it is usual to speak of the specialization of meaning.
Extension of meaning may be illustrated by the word target which originally meant ‘a small round shield' but now means 'anything that is fired at'. If ihe word with the extended meaning passes from the specialized vocabulary into common use. the result of the semantic change is described as the generalization of meaning.
Amelioration of meaning implies the improvement of the connotational component of meaning. For instance, the word minister originally denoted ‘a servant' but now - a civil servant of higher rank, a person administering a department of state.
Deterioration of meaning implies the acquisition by the word of some derogatory emotive charge. For example, the word boor was originally used to denote ’a peasant' and then acquired a derogatory connotational meaning and came to denote a clumsy or ill-bred fellow.
23. Polysemy in English. The semantic structure of polysemantic words.
24. Polysemy and context. Types of context. The meaning of the word and its usage.
25.Homonymy. Sources of homonymy. Classification of homonyms.
Homonyms proper -homonyms which are the same in sound and spelling.(back-back,pit дыра-косточка)
Homophones- the same in sound but different in spelling(night- knight; piece-peace, rite- to write- right, sea- to see-С.
Homographs- the same in spelling but different in sound.(lead-lead-э, tear тээ тиэ)
Smirnitsky classified homonyms into 2 classes: I. full, II. partial
Fulllexical homonyms are words which represent the same category of parts of speech and have the same paradigm. match-a game, match- a short piece of wood.
A. Simple lexico-grammatical partial homonyms are words which belong to the same category of parts of speech.(to) found-found ( find)
B.Complex lexico-grammatical partial homonyms are words of different categories of parts of speech.rose-rose, maid-made, left-left, bean-been, one-won
C.Partial lexical homonyms are words of the same category of parts of speech which are identical only in their corresponding forms.to lie (lay, lain), v. to lie (lied, lied), v.to hang (hung, hung), v.to hang (hanged, hanged), v.to can (canned, canned) (I) can (could)
1)phonetic changes-historical development of words(knight-night),
2) borrowing-a borrowed word may dublicate in form(rite-to write-right. rite here is a Latin borrowing)
3)conversion (comb-to comb)
4)shortening(fan-from fanatic, fan-an implement to make a current of air)
5)sound imitation (bang звук расческа)
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