Как сделать разговор полезным и приятным
Как сделать объемную звезду своими руками
Как сделать то, что делать не хочется?
Как сделать погремушку
Как сделать неотразимый комплимент
Как противостоять манипуляциям мужчин?
Как сделать так чтобы женщины сами знакомились с вами
Как сделать идею коммерческой
Как сделать хорошую растяжку ног?
Как сделать наш разум здоровым?
Как сделать, чтобы люди обманывали меньше
Вопрос 4. Как сделать так, чтобы вас уважали и ценили?
Как сделать лучше себе и другим людям
Как сделать свидание интересным?
I. Language Practice. 1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:
1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:
Good ø bye! `Bye ø bye! `So ø long! `See you ø soon! `See you ø later! `See you toømorrow! I `hope we’ll `see someö more of you! Good ø night! Good ø day! Re`member me to...
`May I intro`duce `Mr. ö N.? `How do you ö do? `Glad to ö meet you. `Pleased to ö meet you. ö Please, intro`duce me to your ö friend. `Let me intro`duce you to `Doctor ö M. `Meet `Mr ö F. `Meet my ö friend, `Doctor ö M.
`Many ö thanks. `Thanks a ö lot. `That’s ö nice of you. `Not at ö all! `That’s all ø right! `Don’t ö mention it!
2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:
1. a buyer - покупатель
2. a seller - продавец
3. private property - частная собственность
4. to own - владеть
5. means of production - средства производства
6. incentive - стимул
7. to earn profits - получать прибыль
8. cost - цена, стоимость
9. cost price - цена производства
10. selling price - продажная цена
11. to charge a price - назначать цену
12. polling booth - кабина для голосования
13. to undersell - продавать по сниженной цене
Text. The Market Economy
A Market, or free enterprise economy is one in which the decisions of many individual buyers and sellers interact to determine the answers to the questions of What, How and Who.
In addition to buyers and sellers, there are several other essential elements in a market economy. One of these is private property. By «private property» we mean the right of individuals and business firms to own the means of productions. Although markets exist in traditional and command economies, the major means of productions (firms, factories, farms, mines, etc.) are usually publicly owned. That is, they are owned by groups of people or by the government. In a market economy the means of production are owned by private individuals. Private ownership gives people the incentive to use their property to produce things that will sell and earn them a profit.
This desire to earn profit is a second ingredient in market economy. Often referred to as the profit motive, it provides the fuel that drives sellers to produce the things that buyers want, and at a price they are willing to pay.
The profit motive also gives sellers the incentive to produce at the lowest possible cost. Why? Because lower costs enable them to (1) increase their profit margins, the difference between cost and selling price, or (2) reduce prices to undersell during the competition, or (3) both.
Economists often compare markets to polling booths. However, unlike the booths in which people vote for politicians, markets provide a kind of economic polling booth for buyers to cast their votes (in the form of purchases) for the goods and services they want. Producers who interpret the votes correctly by producing the things that buyers demand can earn profits. Those who interpret the voting incorrectly, producing too much or too little, or charging a price that is too high or too low, do not earn profits. In fact, they often lose money.
Consumer votes can be a matter of life and death to business in a market economy.
II. Exercises on the Text:
3. Give Russian equivalents to:
the decisions of many individual buyers and sellers interact; essential elements; the right to own the means of production; to exist in traditional and command economies; publicly owned; the incentive to use their property; the desire to earn profits; often referred to; to drive sellers to produce the things; the lowest possible cost; to increase their profit margins; unlike the booth; to vote for politicians; to cast their votes; to interpret the voting incorrectly; too much or too little; to lose money; a matter of life and death to business.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. What is a market, or free enterprise?
2. Are there several other essential elements in a market economy?
3. What do we mean by «private property»?
4. Who own the major means of production?
5. What does private ownership give people?
6. What is the profit motive?
7. Why does the profit motive give sellers the incentive to produce at the lowest possible cost?
8. To what do economists often compare markets?
9. What is the difference?
10. When do producers lose money?
Date: 2015-10-18; view: 72; Нарушение авторских прав