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ТЕКСТ 11: CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS






World War 2 created a greater need for classification system of mental disorders. The exstence of several different classification systems such as APA (American Psychological Association), the US Army, and the US Navy, and the veterans Administration (which all had separate classification systems) made communication among mental health professionals difessionals difficult. Therefore, in 1952 the American Psychological Association created the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which was designed to de the standard for mental health classification in the US. The DSM has since undergone four revision.

Diagnostic criteria for the most common mental disorders include; description, diagnosis, treatment, and research findings. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordes is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The book is consideered the bible for any professional who makes psychiatric diagnoses in the United States and many other countries. Some of the disorders described in the manual are listed below.

Anxiety Disorders include different types of phobias, obssive-compulsive disorder (obsessive thoughts and compulsive rituals), and panic disorder(panic attacks). Anxiety is a feeling of tension associated with a sense of threat of danger when the source of the danger is not known. In contrast, fear is a feeling of tension that is associated with a known source of danger. It is normal for us tohave some mild aniety present in our daily lives. However, heightened anxiety is emotionally painful. It disrupts a persons daily functioning.

Eating Disorders are characterized by disturbances in eating behavior. This can mean eating too much, not eating enough, or eating in an etremely unhealthy manner. Many people argue that simple overeating should be considered a disorder, but at this time it is not in this category. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa (self imposed starvation) and bulimia nervosa (binge eating and dieting)
Mood Disorders include those where the primary symptom is a disturbance in mood. To be diagnosed with a mood disorder, your feelings must be to the extreme. Mood disorders include bipolar disorder, cyclothymic disorder (mania with depression), dysthymic disorder ( prolonged minor depression with mania) and major depressive disorder (major depression without mania)

Personality Disorders are a group of mental disturbances defined as a pattern of inner experiences and behaviors that are rigid and deep-seated to bring a person into repeated conflicts with his or her social and occupational environment. In addition, the patient usually sees the disorder as being consistent with his or her self image and may blame others. They include antisocial personality disorder (impuisive, aggressive, manipulative), borderline personality disorder(impulsive, self-destructive, unstable), paranoid personality disorder(suspicious, distrustful), suspicious personality disorder(socially distant, detached) and others.

Substance Related Disorders include alcohol dependence, cocaine dependence, nicotine dependence, seductive dependence. Other disorders listed in the manual include autistic disorder, dementia and delirium.








Date: 2015-07-01; view: 529; Нарушение авторских прав

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